COMMENTARY

NOTES

1. ... a fair-haired bachelor...

Fair-haired is a compound adjective.

Compounding is a word-building process in which words are formed by joining two or more bases together. Compounds are most common among adjectives and nouns.

Compound adjectives can be built according to the following structural patterns:*

N + A snow-white
N + Ved spell bound
(A + N) + ed fair-haired

The pattern (A + N) + ed is very productive in Modern English. Adjectives built according to this pattern are used to describe a person's features- and appearance, parts of the body, traits of character, clothing, e. g.

dark-haired, pale-faced, long-legged, good-natured, etc.

Compound nouns are commonly formed by a combination of two simple nominal bases,

N +N toothache

or a simple nominal base and deverbal noun-base,

N + Nv toymaker, word-formation

2. ... who might have paid him a visit and a fee.

In this sentence the verb to pay refers to two objects - a visit and a fee. The combination to pay a visit is a phraseological unit meaning нанести визит; to pay a fee is a free combination in which the verb to pay is used in its direct meaning. By using the same verb with these two very different objects the author achieves a humorous stylistic effect. This stylistic device is called zeugma ['z(j)u:gma] зевгма.

Other examples of the same stylistic device are the following: ...He took his hat and his leave. She fell into a chair and a fainting fit, simultaneously. When they emerged upon the road he (Bob) threw off his spectacles and his gravity together. (Ch. Dickens, "The Pickwick Papers").

3. Ye see?

Ye is regarded as a dialectal form of the pronoun you. The speaker is a Scot.

4. ... dentist-in-chief to the heroical Rannoch.

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Dentist-in-chief is a compound noun formed by analogy 'with such words as commander-in-chief, editor-in-chief. In this context it is used to produce a humorous effect.

STRUCTURAL PATTERNS

1. Clauses of Unreal Condition

... the referee would certainly have been murdered had not a Five Towns crowd observed its usual miraculous self-restraint.

In sentences with clauses of unreal condition there may be four different combinations of forms:

Clause of unreal condition Principal clause
a) the Past Indefinite would + indefinite infinitive
b) the Past Indefinite would + perfect infinitive indefinite
c) the Past Perfect would + infinitive continuous
d) the Past Perfect would + perfect infinitive

Perfect forms refer the actions to the past, non-perfect - to the present or future.

If you offered him your help now, he would not refuse it this time, (a) Если бы вы сейчас предложили ему свою помощь, он бы на этот раз не отказался.
If he had good manners, he would have seen you home yesterday, (b) Если бы он был воспитанным человеком, он бы проводил вас вчера домой.
If 1 had accepted their offer, I would now have every opportunity to do research, (c) Если бы я принял их предложение, у меня были бы сейчас все возможности заниматься исследованиями.
If you had not missed the turning, we would be approaching the city now. (c) Если бы ты не пропустил поворот, мы бы сейчас подъезжали к городу.
If Mrs. Clowes had not objected, Mr. Cowlishaw would have filled her tooth, (d) Если бы миссис Клауз не возражала, мистер Каулишо запломбировал бы ей зуб.

Note: When sentences with clauses of unreal condition are used with reference to characters in fiction, perfect forms are used.

If Mr. Cowlishaw had gone to the match on his opening day, it would have been sheer madness.

2. Complex Object

a) ... he waited for dental sufferers to come to him from all quarters of the Five Towns.

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Such verbs as to expect, to hate, to wait (for), to ask (for) and the expression should/would like take the Complex Object where the infinitive is used with the particle to.

to expect smb to do smth

Professor Fox did not expect Erik to talk to him about his vacation. Профессор Фокс не ожидал, что Эрик будет говорить с ним о каникулах.

to hate smb to do smth (often passive)

I hate my sister to be gazed at. Я терпеть не могу, когда на мою сестру так пристально смотрят.

should/would like smb to do smth; 'd like smb to do smth

I'd like you to drive me home. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы вы отвезли меня домой.

to wait for smb to do smth

He waited for us to tell him the whole story. Он ждал, когда мы расскажем ему свою историю.

to ask for smth to be done (usu passive)

He asked for the papers to be brought in the morning. Он попросил, чтобы бумаги принесли утром.

Note: The verbs to wait for and to ask for when followed by the Complex Object retain the preposition for.

b) I had 'em all picked up.

The verb to have takes the Complex Object with the past participle - to have smth done. The construction is commonly used to express an action performed on the request or order of the person denoted by the subject.

I must have my hair done. Мне нужно сделать прическу.
He wants to have his suit pressed. Он хочет, чтобы ему погладили костюм.
Please, have these things brought into the house. Пожалуйста, скажите, чтобы эти вещи внесли в дом.
He ought to have her examined by the doctor. Он должен показать ее врачу.

Note: Russian impersonal sentences of the type Дом необходимо побелить, это платье нужно выстирать, и т. п. are translated with the verbs to want/need + gerund.

The house wants (needs) painting. This dress wants (needs) washing. My shoes want (need) repairing, etc.

3. Gerund as Prepositional Object (Verb + Prep + Gerund)

He had a drooping moustache, which prevented Mr. Cowlishaw from adding his teeth up instantly.

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Here are some verbs which take a prepositional object expressed by a gerund:

to dream of doing smth

Even as a boy Charile Chaplin dreamt of becoming an actor. Уже в детстве Чарли Чаплин мечтал стать актером.

to look forward to doing smth

I am looking forward to our seeing you next week. Я с нетерпением жду, когда мы встретимся с тобой на следующей неделе.

to think of doing smth

Ann thought of going to the seaside lout the doctor did not advise her to. Анна думала поехать к морю, и врач не советовал ей делаь этого.

to insist on doing smth

It was late and she insisted on seeing me to the station. Было поздно, и она настаивала на том, чтобы проводить меня до станции.

VOCABULARY

1. Mr. Cowlishaw - aged twenty-four, was...

// aged a [eıdჳd] (of the age) - в возрасте.

This adjective is placed after the noun it modifies.

...a boy aged ten мальчик (в возрасте) десяти лет
She at once sent Peter (now aged seven) with a note to her friend. Она тотчас же послала Питера, которому было уже семь лет, с запиской к своей подруге. //

age n - возраст

at the age of - в возрасте

Peter went to school at the age of five. Питер пошел в школу в возрасте пяти лет.

at an early age - в раннем возрасте

David learned to read at an early Давид рано научился читать, age.

  • to look one's age - выглядеть соответственно своему возрасту
  • to look young for one's age - выглядеть молодо для своих лет
  • to look more (less) than one's age - выглядеть старше (моложе) своих лет
  • to be under age - быть несовершеннолетним, не достичь совершеннолетия
  • to be (come) of age - стать совершеннолетним, достичь совершеннолетия

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2. Nothing lacked there.

// The verb to lack used intransitively as in the text is not common.//

to lack vt - be entirely without or have very little of - совершенно не иметь, не хватать, недоставать; испытывать недостаток в чем-л.

Не lacked a sense of humour. У него не было чувства юмора.
I lacked words with which to express my thanks. У меня не хватало слов, чтобы выразить свою благодарность.

Note: Care should be taken not to confuse the verb to lack with the verb to want.

The difference between to lack and to want is that when we say a person (or a thing) lacks something we simply state the fact that he (or it) does not -have it, whereas when we say a person (or a thing) wants something we do not only state the fact that he (or it) does not have it but at the same time we stress the fact that he is in need of it.

The house lacks a back stairway (it hasn't got one). The house wants a back stairway (it would be much better if it had one).

Lacking and wanting are synonymous.

to be lacking (wanting) in smth - not have enough - недоставать, не хватать

He is too young for the job, he is lacking (wanting) in life experience. Он слишком молод для такой работы, ему недостает жизненного опыта.

3. ... is enough to cure all the toothache for miles around.

  • to cure vt - bring back to health; provide a remedy for a disease, ill-health or suffering; (fig) remove or get rid of (an evil) - вылечивать, излечивать; отучать
  • to cure smb of (a disease, a headache, etc) - вылечить кого-л. (от болезни, головной боли и т. п.)
  • to cure smth (a disease, a headache, a bad cough, etc) - вылечить (болезнь, головную боль, сильный кашель и т. и.)
  • to cure smb of bad habits - отучить кого-л. от дурных привычек
1 did not need to go to the doctor; I was able to cure myself. Мне не надо было ходить к доктору; я могла вылечить себя сама.
He cured my sister of rheumatism. Он вылечил мою сестру от ревматизма.
The boy often told lies and it was difficult to cure him of the bad habit. Мальчик часто говорил неправду, и было трудно отучить его от этой дурной привычки.

There are other verbs in English to render the meaning of the Russian verbs лечить, вылечивать: to treat, to heal.

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to treat vt - give medical or surgical care to - лечить

to treat smb, smth - лечить кого-л., что-л.

Who is treating you? Кто вас лечит?
How do you treat a case of rheumatism? Как вы лечите ревматизм?

to treat smb for (an illness) - лечить кого-л. от (болезни)

Which doctor is treating you for your illness? Какой доктор лечит вас от вашей болезни?

As compared with the verb to cure to treat describes the process of curing, whereas to cure shows the result of treatment.

treatment n - лечение

to be under treatment, to have (take, get) treatment for (an illness) - лечиться от (болезни)

The boy has been (under treatment) having treatment for pneumonia for a week already, but there is no improvement so far. Мальчик уже неделю лечится от воспаления легких, но пока что улучшения нет.

to heal vt & i (esp. of cuts, wounds and other injuries) - вылечивать, залечивать; заживать, залечиваться

The wound is closed, but it is not yet healed. Рана затянулась, но она еще не зажила.
The burn soon healed up (over). Do you know any herb that could heal this cut quickly? Ожог скоро зажил. Ты знаешь какую-нибудь траву, которая могла бы быстро залечить этот порез?

4. By a curious chance he had observed ... that she was obviously in pain from her teeth.

  • by chance - случайно
  • by a lucky chance - по счастливой случайности
  • quite by chance - совершенно случайно
  • to be in great pain - очень страдать от боли

5. But she had doubtless gone, despite her toothache, to the, football match.

doubtless adv (without doubt) - несомненно, вне всяких сомнений, без сомнения

Не said it would doubtless be an interesting interview. Он сказал, что это будет несомненно интересная встреча.
  • doubt n - сомнение; нерешительность, колебание; неясность
  • no doubt - certainly - без сомнения, конечно

You've no doubt heard the news. Вы, конечно, слышали новости

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to have no doubt + that-clause

I have no doubt that she was asleep within twenty minutes of my leaving her. Я не сомневаюсь, что она уже спала спустя двадцать минут после того, как я ушла.

to have grave doubts about smth; to have grave doubts + whether (if)-clause

I have grave doubts about his honesty, sincerity. Я сильно сомневаюсь в его честности, искренности.
I had grave doubts whether he would be able to do the job at all. Я сильно сомневалась, что он вообще сможет выполнить эту работу.

to doubt vt - сомневаться в чем-л., подвергать сомнению, быть неуверенным в чем-л.

I do not doubt the truth of the story. Я не сомневаюсь в правдивости этой истории.
We doubted his honesty. Мы сомневались в его честности.

to doubt + whether (if)-clause

I doubt whether it is true. Я сомневаюсь, что это правда.
I very much doubt whether I shall be able to get there in lime. Я сильно сомневаюсь, что смогу добраться туда вовремя.

Note: The verb to doubt in the negative and interrogative sentences is followed by that-clause.

I don't doubt that he will like the story. Я не сомневаюсь, что ему понравится этот рассказ.
Do you still doubt that. he will win? Вы все еще сомневаетесь, что он победит?

6. So he sat and yawned, and gazed at the crowd...

To gaze vi (at, on, ugon) implies fixed and prolonged attention, esp as in admiration or wonder, or with interest - пристально глядеть; вглядываться; глазеть; уставиться.

Stop gazing around! Перестань глядеть по сторонам!
What are you gazing at? На что это ты уставилась?
She gazed upon him in bewilderment. Она смотрела на него с недоумением.
Andrew Manson sat gazing with fixed intensity through the window upon the mountains which rose on either side of the single railway track. Эндрю Мэнсон, не отрываясь, смотрел в окно на горы, которые поднимались по обеим сторонам одноколейной дороги.

Syn: to look, to stare. To look is the general term in this group.

I saw him looking another way. Я видела, что он смотрит в другую сторону.

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to look smb up and down - оглядывать кого-л. с головы до ног

The policeman looked George up and down and said: ... Полицейский оглядел Джорджа с головы до ног и сказал: ...

То stare vi (at, into, etc) denotes a fixed and direct gazing at a person or object, usually with eyes wide open. It may imply curiosity, astonishment, insolence, rudeness, or vacant fixedness - пристально смотреть, уставиться; таращить, пялить глаза.

Не sat staring into space. Он сидел, уставясь в пространство.
She didn't like being stared at. Она не любила, когда на нее пялили глаза.
He was staring ahead of him, a puzzled expression in his . eyes. Он, не отрываясь, смотрел прямо перед собой, в глазах его было недоумение.

7. Mr. Cowlishaw was just dozing over the Signal ...

to doze vi (over) - sleep lightly; be half asleep - дремать; дремать над чем-л.

to doze off - fall lightly asleep - задремать

It was stuffy in the coach and David dozed off. В почтовой карете было душно, и Давид задремал.

8. ... when the door bell rang

the door bell rang - в дверь позвонили

there was a ring (knock) at the door - раздался звонок (стук) в дверь

9. With beating heart he retained his presence of mind.

// to retain one's presence of mind - lit. 11 Syn: to keep one's presence of mind - сохранять присутствие духа

Kemp kept his presence of mind and went on talking as if nothing had happened. Сохраняя присутствие духа, Кемп продолжал говорить, как будто ничего не случилось.

10. An accident, I suppose?

accident n - несчастный случай; катастрофа; авария a car (road, traffic) accident; a railway accident or crash; an air crash or disaster; a shipwreck

to have an accident, to be involved in an accident - попасть в катастрофу, в аварию

I am sorry I came late. Извините, что я опоздала.
I had a car accident (I was involved in a car accident). Я попала в аварию (машина, в которой я ехала, попала в аварию).

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Note: to meet with an accident may refer to the future, in form of a warning, or to the past with reference to a trifling accident.

Why are you so late? - Oh, I met with a trifling accident - the heel came off one of my. shoes and I had to go to a shoemaker. Почему ты опоздала? - О, со мной произошла неприятность: . у туфли оторвался каблук, и мне пришлось идти к сапожнику.

11. "I had 'em all picked up"

to pick up vt

a) take hold of and lift up - поднимать, подбирать

John picked up Fleur's handkerchief and quickly hid it in his pocket. Джон поднял платок Флёр и быстро спрятал его в карман.

b) call for; find; take along - заезжать, заходить за Кем-л., за чем-л.

He'll pick you up at five o'clock. Он заедет за вами в пять часов.
I'll call and pick up the books if they are ready. Я зайду и захвачу книги, если они готовы.
The bus stopped to pick up passengers. Автобус остановился и взял пассажиров.

12. ... as you re a commencing dentist.

The word combination commencing + noun is very rarely used at present to denote a beginner.

The following words are more commonly used: a newly (recently) qualified dentist; a beginner.

13. ... that my teeth are on view at your premises.

to be on view - быть выставленным для обозрения - is the usual expression in connection with exhibitions, esp art exhibitions. As used in the text, it produces a humorous effect.

14. ... the idea was an idea of genius.

  • genius n - одаренность, гениальность
  • The noun genius has no corresponding adjective in English.
  • an idea of genius - гениальная мысль
  • a work of genius - гениальное творение
  • a scientist of genius - гениальный ученый
  • In the text the combination an idea of genius is used ironically.

The Russian word гениальный used emphatically in colloquial speech may be translated as brilliant, wonderful, splendid.

План был просто гениальный. This was a brilliant plan.

15. ... and every gazer would inevitably be familiarized with ...

// to familiarize vt - make oneself or smb well acquainted with smth - познакомить, ознакомить кого-л. с чем-л. //

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familiar adj - давно знакомый, обычный, привычный

Не talked to me of Chopin and played the familiar melodies with much brilliance. Он говорил со мной о Шопене и блестяще играл знакомые мелодии.

to be (lock, sound, etc) familiar to smb - быть (казаться) известным, знакомым кому-л.

The name sounded familiar to me. Имя показалось мне знакомым.
These facts are no doubt familiar to you. Зти факты, несомненно, вам уже известны.

to be (grow, get, become, etc) familiar with smth - хорошо знать (освоиться с чем-л.)

There began the tea ceremony with which I was now very familiar. Затем началась церемония чаепития, с которой я была теперь хорошо знакома.
He soon grew familiar with his new surroundings. Он скоро освоился с новой обстановкой.

16. "I'm sorry I can't fall in with your scheme," he said.

to fall in with smth - agree to; yield - присоединиться к чему-л.; поддержать что-л.

However, she refused to fall in with my suggestion. Однако она отказалась поддержать мое предложение (не согласилась с моим предложением).

to fall behind (with) - be late in doing smth - опаздывать (делать что-л.)

I've fallen behind with my rent (payments, correspondence, work, etc). Я задолжала за квартиру (запоздала с платежами, не ответила на письма вовремя, не выполнила работу в срок и т. п.).

to fall into a deep (sound, heavy) sleep (usu after some extraordinary event, happening) - заснуть глубоким (крепким, тяжелым) сном; погрузиться в тяжелый сон и т. п.

After the night's adventure Tom fell into a heavy sleep. После ночного приключения Том заснул тяжелым сном.
to fall asleep - заснуть  
Did you fall asleep? I'll drop home to get a short rest so I won't be falling asleep on the job. Вы заснули? Я забегу домой и отдохну немного, чтобы не заснуть за работой.

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Syn: to get to sleep implies the wish or desire to sleep

Martin closed his eyes and tried to get to sleep, but couldn't. I couldn't get to sleep for a long time. Мартин закрыл глаза и попытался заснуть, но не мог. Я долго не мог заснуть.

17. But Scotsmen are not to be persuaded like that.

To persuade and its synonym to convince imply influencing a person's thoughts or actions. However, to persuade is mainly used in the meaning of to make a person (by argument, appealing to his reason) act in the desired way - убедить, склонить, уговорить кого-л. сделать что-л.

We persuaded him to go there at once. Мы уговорили его пойти туда немедленно.

То convince means to make a person realize or believe that something is actually so - убедить, уверить кого-л. в чем-л., довести до сознания

We finally convinced him that he was wrong. Мы наконец убедили его в том, что он неправ.

Note the structural patterns in which the verbs are frequently used:

  • to persuade smb to do smth
  • to convince smb of smth
  • to convince smb + that-clause
  • to be convinced of smth
He persuaded me to write a letter to her at once. Он уговорил меня написать ей письмо сейчас же.
He finally convinced them that travelling by plane was perfectly safe. Он наконец убедил их, что летать самолетом совершенно безопасно.
We couldn't convince him of his mistake. Мы не могли убедить его в том, что он ошибался.
I'm convinced of his honesty. Я убежден в его честности.

Note: To persuade and to convince correspond to the Russian perfective verbs (глаголы совершенного вида) убедить, уговорить. The Russian imperfective verbs (глаголы несовершенного вида) убеждать, уговаривать are rendered in English by to try to persuade, to try to convince. Compare:

We tried to convince her that she was wrong. Мы уверяли ее, что она была неправа.
We could not convince her that she was wrong. Мы не могли убедить ее, что она была неправа.
Mr. Cowlishaw tried to persuade Mrs. Clowes to have her tooth filled. Мистер Каулишо уговаривал миссис Клауз запломбировать зуб.

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Mrs. Clowes persuaded Mr. Cow-lishaw to take her tooth out instead of filling it. Миссис Клауз уговорила мистера Каулишо удалить ей зуб, а не запломбировать.

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*Ved - participle, М„ - deverba! noun (отглагольное существительное)



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