1. Auguste Rodin [’gjust rou'dæn] (1840-1917), a celebrated French sculptor

The Petite Ecole [,ptit ə'kol], an art school in Paris where tuition was free

The Louvre ['lu:vr], one of the largest picture galleries of the world, especially rich in masterpieces of Italian, Dutch and French art

Michelangelo Buonarooti [,markəl'ændჳlou: bwnə'rാ:ti] (1475-1564), an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet

Rembrandt van Rijn ['rembrænt væn 'rain] (1606-1669), a Dutch painter

Delacroix [delə'krwാ:] (1798-1863), a French painter

Leonardo da Vinci [li:ə'na:do də'vint∫i:] (1452-1519), a Florentine painter, sculptor, architect and engineer

Raphael ['ræfeiəl] (1483-1520), an Italian painter

"La Belle Jardiniere" [lə'bel ჳardiŋ'jεr] - "Прекрасная садовница"

2. Auguste looked up but didn't answer.

  • "You will end up an artisan or ornament maker."
  • He ... decided to tear up his drawings.
  • Auguste stood up.
  • "And give up art?"

The verbal phrases look up, end up, tear up, stand up, give up are all built on one and the same pattern: verb + postpositive, but semantic relations between their components are different in character.

In give up - отказываться, бросать - the verb and the postpositive are semantically indivisible and the meaning of the whole phrase cannot be derived from the meanings of its separate elements.

Phrases of this kind can be classified as phraseological units. Here are some other examples of such verb postpositive phrases: to find out - узнавать; to turn up - появляться; to take in - обманывать.

In all other cases (look up - поднимать глаза, stand up - встать, tear up - разорвать, end up - закончить) the semantic relations between the components are not so close. The verb doesn't change its meaning and the postpositive serves only to modify or intensify it. The postpositive may show direction (look up), change the aspect of the verb (stand is a non-terminative verb, whereas stand up is a terminative one) or intensify the meaning of the verb (tear up, end up).

Such phrases can be referred to as free word combinations.

There are also cases in which it is difficult to distinguish between phraseological units and free word combinations, as both components partly retain their meaning and at the same time make up a semantically integral whole, e. g. to drop in - заглядывать; to put on - надевать.


Such boundary cases make the problem of verb-postpositive phrases a debatable point with many linguists. So far there is no unanimity of opinion as to the character of such phrases and the nature of their second element.*


Article + Proper Name

a) ... were encouraged to visit the Louvre.

Names of picture galleries, museums, theatres, concert halls, cinemas and hotels are used with the definite article: The Hermitage, the Tate Gallery, the Russian Museum, the British Museum, the Chaikovski Hall, the Carnegie Hall, the Forum, the Odeon.

b) ... and the blossoming Auguste agreed ...

The definite article is used with a name modified by a descriptive attribute when the attribute indicates a comparatively permanent quality of the person in question and not a passing state.

"Charlie," the irresponsible Emily broke in, "I tried to reach you this morning." "Чарли, - прервала его безответственная Эмили, - я пыталась дозвониться до тебя . сегодня утром".

с) ... he was seeing for the first time original Leonardos, Titians, Raphaels ...

A proper name becomes a common noun when the name of a painter, writer, sculptor, etc is used to denote his work. The articles with such nouns are used in accordance with the general rules for countable nouns.

I never knew you had a Rembrandt in your collection. Я не знал, что в вашей коллекции есть Рембрандт (картина Рембрандта).
The Leonardo sent to the exhibition is considered one of the best. Картина Леонардо да Винчи, посланная на выставку, считается одной из его лучших картин.


*Arnold 1. V. The English Word. Moscow 1973, pp. 185-187.;Амосова Н. Н. Основы английской фразеологии. ЛГУ, 1963, с. 131-135.;Kashcheyeva M. A., Potapova I. A., Tuyrina N. S. Practical Lexicology.;Leningrad, 1974, pp. M9-I50.

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