1. Freshman physics lab

Freshman physics lab is the laboratory work in physics for the first year students. Lab is a shortened word from laboratory.

Shortening is one of the ways of enlarging the English vocabulary. There are two main types of shortenings: clipped words and initial abbreviations.


Clipping is the result of reducing a word to one of its parts. A word may be clipped at the beginning, at the end or part of it may be omitted in the middle, e. g.

  • exam - from examination
  • phone - from telephone
  • maths (also math Am) - from mathematics

Clipped words are mostly characteristic of colloquial speech. Initial abbreviations are produced by shortening word-groups to initial letters or syllables, e. g.

  • MP - from Member of Parliament
  • UNO - from United Nations Organization
  • Interpol - from International Police

In some cases only the first component of a word-group is shortened, the second one undergoing no changes at all, e. g.

V-day - from Victory Day

2. beautiful, wonderful, watchful

-ful is an adjective-forming suffix which is usually added to nominal bases imparting to them the meaning of full of, abounding in or causing, giving, e. g.

  • beautiful - full of beauty, having beauty
  • painful -giving pain

When added to a verbal base, the suffix -ful gives the derived adjective the meaning of inclined, tending to, e. g.

  • watchful - inclined or tending to watch

There is another adjective-forming suffix in English similar in meaning to the suffix -ful: -y - full of, tending to, e. g.

noisy - full of noise

  • sleepy - tending to sleep, ready to go to sleep
  • These suffixes are called synonymous suffixes.

In many cases nominal bases may take both one of the synonymous suffixes (-ful, -y) and the antonymous suffix -less, thus forming pairs of adjective with opposite meanings, e. g.

  • painful - painless
  • noisy - noiseless

3. At Columbia

Columbia as used in the text means Columbia University. The word University is generally dropped in informal speech.

He is at Oxford. - He is at Oxford University.

Note that no article is used with names of universities and colleges: London University, Eton college. But: The University of London.

4. on the East Side

The East Side is the part of New York City lying to the east of Fifth Avenue, where the world's richest residential district, the Upper East Side, is situated.



1. Wish + Object Clause

... he wished it could be more affable.

The predicate verb in object clauses dependent on the verb to wish describes an unreal situation.

I wish I had'gone to that concert. Жаль, что я не пошла на этот концерт.

The tense form of the predicate verb in the object clause shows the relations between the actions expressed in the principal clause and in the subordinate (object) clause:

a) The Past Indefinite shows that the action in the subordinate clause is simultaneous with that of the principal clause.

He wished he knew more about his fellow-students. Он хотел бы больше знать о своих однокурсниках.

b) The Past Perfect shows that the action of the subordinate clause is prior to that of the principal clause.

You will wish you had controlled yourself and answered all his questions. Вы пожалеете, что не сдержались и не ответили на все его вопросы.

Note: The same rules hold true for the use of tense forms in clauses of comparison introduced by as if, as though.

He looked at me as if he didn't believe a word of what I was saying. Он смотрел на меня так, как будто не верил ни одному слову из того, что я говорил.
You speak as if you had read a lot on the problem. Вы говорите так, как будто много читали по этому вопросу.

с) When the action of the subordinate clause follows that of the principal clause the predicate in the subordinate clause is generally expressed by could or might + infinitive.

Erik wished he could (might) start working immediately. Эрику хотелось бы начать работу немедленно.

Would + infinitive may be found in the subordinate clause only if the subjects in the clauses are different. It makes the wish more emphatic.

I wish spring would come soon. Хорошо бы скорее пришла весна.


The use of would + infinitive often implies that the person expressed by the subject of the subordinate clause does not want to perform the action.

I wish he would tell me everything. Как бы мне хотелось, чтобы он мне все рассказал.

Note: The verb to be may have the form were for all persons singular and plural. The form were is traditionally termed the Past Subjunctive.

I wish it were true (or: I wish it was true). Жаль, что это неправда (как бы мне хотелось, чтобы это было правдой).

Note: As all the forms of the predicate verb in object clauses (after the verb to wish) denote unreal actions they very often serve as expressions of regret rather than wish and are accordingly translated into Russian by the expression жаль, the verb сожалеть etc.

I wish I had the book, (a) Жаль, что у меня нет этой книги.
I wish I had told her about it. (a) Жаль, что я не сказал ей об этом.
I wished Thomas hadn't brought me here, (b) Я сожалел, что Томас привел меня сюда.

If the verb in the object clause is affirmative in English, it is negative in Russian (a) and vice versa (b).

2. Must, may, can + Perfect or Continuous Infinitive

... Gorin must have been tortured for a moment by...

The modal verbs must, may, can used with the perfect or continuous infinitive express various degrees of supposition, i. e. probability, doubt, incredulity.

a) The verb must in such cases expresses a high degree of supposition, almost certainty. The Russian equivalents are должно быть, вероятно.

He must have worked the whole summer. He looks tired. Он, должно быть, работал все лето. Он выглядит усталым.

Note: The verb must in this meaning is not used with the particle not. To express negation lexical means are used.

He must have been out when I rang him up. Его, должно быть, не было дома, когда я позвонила ему.
Evidently he did not know anything about it. Он, должно быть, ничего не знал об этом.

b) The verb may expresses uncertainty as to the fulfilment of an action, state or occurrence, supposition implying doubt. The Russian equivalents are возможно, может быть.


She may be staying with her friends at a place they have in Moscow. Она, возможно, гостит у своих друзей в Москве.
Don't be angry with him. He may not have known about it. Не сердись на него. Он, может быть, ничего об этом не знал.

с) The verb can expresses doubt (in interrogative sentences) or incredulity (in negative sentences). The Russian equivalents are неужели, не может быть.

Can she have told a lie? Неужели она сказала неправду?
She can't be lying! Не может быть, чтобы она лгала!

The form of the infinitive shows the time reference of the action. The perfect infinitive is used when the action refers to the past, the continuous infinitive refers the action to the present.

She must have done some research work in this field. Должно быть, она занималась исследовательской работой в этой области.
She must be doing some research work in this field. Должно быть, она занимается исследовательской работой в этой области.

3. Used to

I used to laugh all the time.

Used to expresses recurrent actions or typical states in the past; it implies contrast between the present and the past - what was typical of the past is no longer true at present.

This kind of house used to cost £ 4,000. Такой дом когда-то стоил 4 000 фунтов.
He used to come here every other day. Он, бывало, приходил сюда через день.

Note: Would do can also denote recurrent actions in the past but its use is stylistically restricted.

4. Now (that)

Now that I'm safe, it's almost as though nothing had happened.

The conjunction now that (also without that) means as, considering that, in view of the fact that... The Russian equivalents are теперь, когда..., раз... .

Now (that) you are well again, you may return to your studies. Раз вы здоровы, вы можете приступить опять к занятиям.


1. Fox rose to shake hands.

to shake vt

a) cause to move from side to side, up and down, etc - трясти to shake a rug - трясти, вытряхивать ковер


to shake smb by the shoulder - трясти кого-л. за плечо

to shake one's head (at) - качать головой (в знак несогласия, сомнения, укоризны, неодобрения и т. п.)

to shake one's finger (fist) at smb - грозить кому-л. пальцем, кулаком

to shake hands (with smb), to shake smb's hand - пожать кому-л. руку, обменяться рукопожатием

Не shook hands with me and thanked me heartily. Он пожал мне руку и сердечно поблагодарил меня.
We shook hands and I left. Мы обменялись рукопожатием, и я ушел.

b) shock, trouble - потрясать, волновать

They were badly shaken by the news. Они были потрясены этим известием.

2. ... the quick eyes would have been amazed at...

to amaze vt - поражать, изумлять, удивлять

Syn: to surprise, to astonish. The three verbs differ in degree.

To surprise is the general term. It means to impress somebody unexpectedly.

Their gift greatly surprised and pleased her. Их подарок очень удивил и обрадовал ее.

То astonish is to surprise as greatly and suddenly as to seem incredible.

He astonished his friends by his sudden departure. Он чрезвычайно удивил своих друзей внезапным отъездом.

То amaze, though it carries the idea of great astonishment, stresses rather bewilderment, perplexity, or wonder.

I was amazed at the breadth of their interests. Я была поражена широтой их интересов.

All three verbs are commonly used in passive constructions followed by an infinitive or a prepositional object (generally with the preposition at).

I was not at all surprised to hear her answer. I knew her only too well. Я совсем не удивилась, услышав ее ответ. Я ее слишком хорошо знала.
We were surprised at finding the house empty. Мы удивились, обнаружив, что в доме никого не было.
I was astonished to discover that what he had told me was a lie. Я был изумлен, обнаружив, что то, что он сказал мне, было неправдой.
I am amazed at his outrageous behaviour. He has always been : such a quiet young fellow. Я поражена (не знаю, что и думать) его возмутительным поведением. Он всегда был таким спокойным.


Thus, we are surprised at what is unexpected, astonished when we find it hard to believe, and amazed when we are struck by something so strange, unusual that we cannot (of do not want to) believe it.

Note the nouns and adjectives corresponding to the verbs: surprise n - surprising a; astonishment n - astonishing a; amazement n - amazing a.

3. ... amazed at any expression of sympathy

sympathy n (for) - сочувствие

He felt sympathy for the young man (felt sorry for him). Он посочувствовал молодому человеку.

to sympathize т (with smb) - сочувствовать кому-л.

We all sympathized with the poor girl when we heard that she had lost her parents. Мы все сочувствовали бедной девушке, когда услышали, что она потеряла родителей.

4. ... he might make a poor impression ...

to make a poor (good, great, favourable) impression (on) - производить плохое (хорошее, огромное, благоприятное) впечатление

The speech made a strong impression on the House. Речь произвела сильное впечатление в палате общин.

The verb to make enters into a number of phraseological units:

to make friends (with) - подружиться

He made friends with the utmost ease. Он легко заводил друзей.

to make fun of - высмеивать, дразнить, подшучивать, шутить

"Don't make fun of me," she pleaded. "Don't laugh at me." "He дразни меня, не смейся надо мной", - просила она.

to make (both) ends meet - сводить концы с концами

After he had lost his job the family could hardly make (both) ends meet. После того, как он потерял работу, семья едва сводила концы с концами.

5. Naturally we're expecting you

to expect vt

a) feel sure that somebody or something will come and be waiting - ждать, ожидать

We expected him for dinner, but he did not come. Мы ждали его к обеду, но он не пришел.


b) think, believe or hope that something will happen - рассчитывать, надеяться

I expect a letter from him in a week. Я надеюсь получить от него письмо через неделю.

to expect smb to do smth

I expect you to work hard. Я надеюсь, что вы будете упорно работать.
She had expected Simon to drive her home. Она надеялась, что Саймон отвезет ее домой.

The verb to wait is synonymous with the verb to expect in the first meaning (a).

to wait vi - be at a fixed place until somebody comes or something happens - ждать

Don't go out. Wait till mother comes. He уходи. Подожди, пока придет мама.

to wait for smb to do smth; to wait for smth to happen

I can't wait for her to come back. Я не могу ждать, пока она вернется.
Everybody waited for the meeting to begin. Все ждали начала собрания (когда начнется собрание).

6. Не had come with no intentions of saying this...

to have no intention (hope, idea) of doing smth - не иметь намерения (надежды, мысли) сделать что-л.

Erik had no intention of saying anything about his personal affairs. У Эрика не было намерения говорить о своих личных делах.
The car broke down and they had no hope (hadn't a hope) of getting to the station in time. Машина сломалась, и у них не было (никакой) надежды добраться до станции вовремя.

7. ... you couldn't help but tell him everything

// can't help but do - не может не сделать (chiefly AE,*colloq). You might expect to hear it in the casual conversation of educated persons. //

Can't help doing is very common in BE, cannot but do is more formal.

I couldn't help laughing. Я не могла не рассмеяться (невольно рассмеялась).
He could not but agree to the plan. Он не мог не согласиться с этим планом.

8. ... the whole Hallingworth family came down to the station to see me off.


to see smb off (at the station, at the airport) - посадить, проводить (на поезд, на самолет)

My friends saw me off at the station. Друзья проводили меня на поезд.

The Russian verb провожать has several other equivalents in English:

to see smb to (a place) - провожать, сопровождать кого-л. куда-л.

Не saw me to the gate. Он проводил меня до ворот.
He saw me home. Он проводил меня домой.

to show smb to, into, in, out - go with a person, show him the way to, into, out of a place - проводить до места, провести внутрь, вводить в помещение, выводить наружу

Не showed me into a small room with a desk in it. Он провел меня в маленькую комнату, в которой стоял письменный стол.
Show her in. Проведите ее сюда.

9. ... a fellow who was driving his car.

to drive vt & i

a) to drive a railway engine, a motor-car, a tram or other vehicle - водить машину, трамвай и т. п.

to drive with caution, carefully, recklessly, at a great speed, in the right (wrong) direction, etc. - вести машину осторожно, лихо, на большой скорости, в нужном (не в том) направлении и т. п.

Can you drive? Ты умеешь водить машину?
It had grown dark and he drove (the car) very carefully. Стемнело, и он вел машину очень осторожно.

b) to drive to - travel somewhere in a car (or other vehicle) which is at one's individual disposal - ехать куда-л. на машине

Shall we drive to the theatre or walk? It's not far. Мы поедем в театр на машине или пойдем пешком? Это недалеко.

The Russian phrase ехать (куда-л.) на чем-л. (на машине, на автобусе, на поезде и т. п.) can be rendered in English by the combination to go (somewhere) by car, by bus, by train, etc.

We went there by bus, but Mother and Father took a taxi. Мы поехали туда на автобусе, а мама и папа на такси.

// Note: The combination to ride in (a bus, train, etc - i. e. nouns denoting public vehicles) means to be in; to sit in and be carried by.

While riding in a bus the other day, I met an old acquaintance of mine. На днях (когда я ехала) в автобусе я встретила свою старую приятельницу. //


с) to drive smb to - take somebody somewhere in a private car - not in a public vehicle - отвозить кого-л. куда-л. на машине

Не drove me to the station. Он отвез меня на станцию.

10. ... he had saved so long to buy it.

to save vt & i

a) keep for future use, put aside (money) - приберегать, оставлять, копить (деньги)

David saved enough money to buy a car. Давид скопил достаточно денег, чтобы купить машину.

b) avoid loss of time, money, etc - сберегать, экономить

It'll save you a lot of time if you go there by car. Вы сэкономите много времени, если поедете туда на машине.

to save smb (a lot) of trouble - избавлять от хлопот, неприятностей

It'll save him a lot of trouble if he speaks to her at once. Это избавит его от (он избежит) многих неприятностей, если он поговорит с ней сейчас же.
This saved us a lot of trouble. Это избавило нас от многих хлопот.

11. Не offered me a job.

to offer vt - hold out in the hand or express in words something which may be accepted or refused - предлагать кому-л. что-л.

to offer smb a cup of tea, a cigarette, money, help, work, friendship, etc.

The hostess offered me a cup of tea. Хозяйка предложила мне чашку чая.
She fell behind the group during her illness and her comrades offered her their help. Она отстала от группы во время болезни, и товарищи предложили ей свою помощь.

to offer to do smth - be ready to do something if it is wanted; volunteer (one who offers does it oneself) - предложить; вызваться сделать что-л.

Не offered to drive her back home. Он предложил отвезти ее обратно домой.

Syn: to suggest vt - put an idea into a person's head - предлагать, советовать

to suggest a plan, a method, a trip, a walk, etc.

Harris suggested a trip down the river. Харрис предложил отправиться в путешествие по реке.


to suggest that smb do smth (that smb should do smth)

I suggested he sleep a little. Я предложила, чтобы он поспал немного.
Do you suggest we should keep quiet about such things? Вы предлагаете молчать о таких вещах?

// Note: The verb to suggest may take the to-phrase (though rarely) if it is necessary to mention the person to whom the suggestion is made, e. g. What did you suggest to the manager? //

to suggest (smb's) doing smth

She suggested (their) staying at her place. Она предложила (им) остановиться у нее.

12. Erik put out the cigarette.

  • to put out - cause to stop burning - тушить, гасить
  • to put out the lights, the candle, the gas, the gas-fire, etc
He put out the candle and fell into a deep sleep. Он погасил свечу и погрузился в глубокий сон.

to go out (of a fire or light) - stop burning - гаснуть

The fire had gone out and the room felt cold. Огонь в камине погас, и в комнате было холодно.

to turn out (off), on the light, radio, gas; water, etc - выключать, включать свет и т. п.; закрывать, открывать воду, кран

Turn off the hot water (tap). Закрой кран с горячей водой.

to switch off, on the light, radio, TV set, etc (used when speaking of an electric circuit) - выключать, включать

Switch on the light, please. Включи свет, пожалуйста.

13. ... hoping to be dismissed painlessly

to dismiss vt - отпускать

a) allow to leave, send away - отпускать

The teacher dismissed the class as soon as the bell rang. Учитель отпустил учеников, как только прозвенел звонок.

b) send away (from one's employment, service) - увольнять

One by one Mr. Smith asked me to dismiss the servants. He did not trust them. Одного за другим я увольнял наших слуг по требованию м-ра Смита. Он не доверял им.

Syn: to sack smb, to give smb the sack, to fire smb (all colloq)

"They will give us the sack, if we don't support them," Henry Fox said. "Они нас уволят, если мы их не поддержим", - сказал Генри Фокс.
The cook was afraid that they would fire him. Повар боялся, что его уволят.


14. ... listening to me go on like an idiot...

like smb, smth - in the same or a similar way as, in the manner of - как, подобным образом

If everyone worked like him, we could finish in a week. Если бы все работали, как он, мы бы смогли кончить через неделю.
They are behaving like children. She refused to be treated like an invalid. Они ведут себя, как дети. Она возражала против того, чтобы с ней обращались как с больной.

as smb, smth - in the capacity or character of - как, в качестве

He introduced her as his sister. Он представил ее как свою сестру.

As is generally used after the verbs to regard, to view, to represent, to treat (считать, рассматривать) and other verbs similar in meaning.

Most people regarded him as a clever man. Многие считали его умным.
All my life you've treated me as a child (as a stranger, etc). You can't treat that as a joke. Всю мою жизнь вы относились ко мне, как к ребенку. Это нельзя считать шуткой.

Note: The verb to consider is not used with as.

Most people considered him a brilliant physicist. Многие считали его гениальным физиком.

Thus, the essential difference between like and as (in the meaning of как) is that like implies the manner or way of acting (behaving) in a particular case, whereas as stresses the general attitude of a person to something or someone.

15. He checked himself

to check oneself - stop oneself from saying or doing anything when one is just going to do it - сдержаться; остановиться (и не сказать или не сделать что-л.)

I was about to tell the young man what I thought - of him, but checked myself in time. Я хотел было сказать молодому человеку, что я думал о нем, но вовремя остановился.

to control oneself - not let oneself get angry or cry or show one's emotions - сдерживаться; сохранять самообладание

She controlled herself and said in. a steady voice, "We are no friends any longer." Она сдержалась и сказала твердым голосом: "Мы больше не друзья".


to pull oneself together - get control of oneself (used when a person is in a state of agitation, rage, despair, etc) - сдерживаться, взять себя в руки

You'd better pull yourself together, you can't do anything in such a state. Возьмите себя в руки. Вы ничего не можете делать в таком состоянии.


* AE - the American vAuaat ai English- RE - the British variant of English.

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