Этимологическая классификация лексики

Упражнение 133. Установите, каким способом переведены или заимствованы следующие слова и словосочетания.

  • А. мирное сосуществование - peaceful coexistence; самокритика - selfcriticism; материальный стимул - material incentive; спутник - sputnik; дача - datcha; колхоз - collective farm
  • Б. establishment - истэблишмент; silent majority - молчаливое большинство; common market - общий рынок; backbencher - заднескамеечник; musical - мюзикл; work-to-rule - работа по правилам; time - тайм; best seller - бестселлер; Malta ['mാ:ltә] - Мальта; escalator ['eskәleıtә] - эскалатор; the White House - Белый дом; shopping centre - торговый центр
  • В. brain washing - "промывка мозгов", идеологическая обработка; handball - ручной мяч, гандбол; drive-in-cafeteria (movie, bank, etc.) - "заезжаловка", кафетерий (кинотеатр, банк и т.п.) для автомобилистов; week end - уикэнд, конец недели, суббота и воскресенье; the green berets - "зеленые береты", войска особого назначения (США); businessmen - бизнесмены; деловые люди

Упражнение 134. Установите, пользуясь словарем, в чем заключается семантическое различие между заимствованным из английского языка русским словом и соответствующим английским словом. Скажите, какое из них шире по объему значения и какое из них является многозначным.

exposure, экспозиция; donor, донор; meeting, митинг; time, тайм; goal, гол.; dog, дог; penalty, пенальти; distance, дистанция

Упражнение 135. Переведите следующие слова и раскройте значение их компонентов.

geology, philology, revitalise, phonograph, lexicography, homonym, inaudible, photograph, telepathy, visual aids, autobiography

Упражнение 136. Прочтите вслух и переведите предложения. Следите за произношением выделенных слов и словосочетаний.

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  • А. 1. This is only a hypothesis, nothing has been proved yet. 2. Ellery Queen is the pseudonym of Frederick Dannay and Manfred B. Lee. 3. 'City hotel' is an euphemism for 'prison'. 4. He is a student of philology. 5. 'Short hand' is a synonym for 'stenography'. 6. The words 'physician' and 'physicist' are often misused. 7. The words 'psychiatry' and 'psychiatrist' are often mispronounced. 8. To say so would be bad psychology. 9. In the first century В.С. England was invaded by the Romans. 10. In England it is customary to eat turkey at Christmas. 11. Arrange the words in alphabetical order. 12. When did the catastrophe occur? 13. It was published in the Chelsea Chronicle. 14. 'Wellnigh' is an archaic word. 15. Philosophers say that the best part of a good dinner is a good companion. 16. Let's synchronise our watches. 17. When the National Anthem is being played, everybody is supposed to rise. 18. The refugees asked for political asylum. 19. 'Broad-shouldered' is a hyphenated word. 20. Hypocrites are unpleasant to deal with.
  • Б. 1. Nothing makes people look older than worry and fatigue. 2. He wrote an excellent critique. 3. Shall I get tickets for a matinée or an evening performance? 4. The French pride themselves on their cuisine. 5. Etiquette is little things you do that you don't want to do. 6. 'I can't believe my ears?' 'A dull cliché!' 7. Fill in the questionnaire. 8. He gets his letters poste restante. 9. It's bourgeois philosophy. 10. A joint communique was issued after the negotiations. 11. The full form of the saying 'Tell it to the marines' is 'Tell it to the marines, the sailors won't believe it'. 12. Shall we dine table d'hôte or a là carte? 13. Have you ordered any hôrs d'oeuvre? 14. According to Dr Brewer the word 'gazette' meaning a newspaper was derived from the smallest Venetian coin, a gazette, charged for hearing read out in a public place a manuscript newspaper issued by the Venetian government once a month. (E. Radford). 15. The secret of being miserable is to have leisure enough to bother about whether you are happy or not. (B. Shaw).

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