Классификация лексики по сходству формы

Упражнение 119. Установите, являются ли приведенные ниже значения значениями одного и того же слова или значениями омонимов. Обоснуйте свое мнение.

fast: 1) прочный, крепкий; 2) быстрый, скорый; scoop: 1) сенсационная новость, опубликованная в газете до ее появления в других газетах; 2) совок, ковш; spleen: 1) селезенка; 2) хандра, раздражительность; date: 1) дата; 2) свидание; gag: 1) кляп; 2) реплика, которой нет в тексте пьесы, отсебятина; board: 1) пластина из дерева, целый кусок или кусок, сбитый из досок (доска столовая, классная, шахматная); 2) питание, стол; 3) стол, за которым заседает группа людей; 4) комиссия, комитет; 5) правление, совет, министерство;, ham: 1) ветчина, окорок; 2) плохой актер

Упражнение 120. Назовите контексты, в которых реализуются: а) значения одного и того же слова; б) значения омонимов. Обоснуйте свое мнение.

yield to a temptation, yield good results; a game of billiards, shoot game; resist the enemy, resist a disease; worn clothes, a worn cliche; rain and hail, to hail smb.; the spring of a watch, in spring and in autumn; on page five, a page, a receptionist and other hotel attendants; tie a knot, be tied up with a client; be deaf and mate, a mute vowel; at the water edge, the edge of a knife; a fast train, a hard and fast rule; a post office, a lamp post; the key to a room, the key to a problem

Упражнение 121. Переведите предложения, пользуясь словарем. Скажите, какая особенность английского языка может затруднить перевод. Назовите слова, имеющие омонимы, и раскройте значение последних.

1. No drug can grow hair once hair roots have died. 2. The relief supplies flown to the earthquake victims arrived in time. 3. The idea hardened to resolve. 4. The author names names and pins the blame. 5. People humour the sick. 6. Crowds jam river fronts on holidays. 7. Lower the production costs. 8. Lower production costs will open up new prospects for the application of the chemical. 9. Manufacturers style dresses and coats for mass appeal. 10. Starvation wages spell poverty for breadwinners. (Morning Star). 11. The woods harbour game.


Упражнение 122. Прочтите вслух и переведите следующие предложения. Найдите в тексте омонимы и определите их тип.

1. Excuse my going first, I'll lead the way. 2. Lead is heavier than iron. 3. He tears up all letters. 4. Her eyes filled with tears. 5. In England the heir to the throne is referred to as the Prince of Wales. 6. Let's go out and have some fresh air. 7. It is not customary to shake hands in England. If the hostess or the host offers a hand, take it; a bow is sufficient for the rest. 8. The girl had a bow of red ribbon in her hair. 9. Mr. Newlywed: Did you sew the button on my coat, darling? Mrs. Newlywed: No, love. I couldn't find the button, so I just sewed up the button hole. 10. Do not sow panic. 11. He took a suite at the hotel. 12. No sweet without sweat. 13. What will you have for dessert? 14. The sailors did not desert the ship. 15. He is soldier to the core. 16. The enemy corps was routed. 17. The word 'quay' is a synonym for 'embankment'. 18. The guests are supposed to leave the key with the receptionist. 19. When England goes metric, flour will be sold by the kilogram. 20. The rose is the national flower of England. 21. In England monarchs reign but do not rule. 22. The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain.

Упражнение 123. Прочтите вслух и переведите следующие словосочетания. Назовите слова, омонимичные выделенным, и напишите их.

sew on a button; pay one's fare; have fruit for dessert; fine weather; the sole of a shoe; and apple core; trim a fir tree; walk along the quay; pour oil on troubled waters; kill smb. with one's bare hands; a world fair held in Japan; Irish by birth; speak in a hoarse voice; iron ore; made of lead; a piece of news; look pale; poll votes; soft fur; the only heir; buy things at a sale; a suite of rooms; the Sahara desert; bore a hole; a juicy pear; tear up a paper; coarse sand; travel in a lower berth; lie to smb.; have a fair trial; rest on one's oars; rain and hail

Упражнение 124. Перепишите, заполнив пропуски нужными словами в требуемой форме.

1. Out of ... out of mind (cite, site, sight). 2. Do not lookagift ... in the mouth (horse, hoarse). 3. It never rains, it ... (pours, paws). 4. No ... without sweat (sweet, suite). 5. Do not run with the ... and hunt with the hounds (hair, hare). 6. All is ... in love and war (fare, fair). 7. Fame is chiefly a matter of ... at the right moment (die, dye).


8. When two people ride the same ..., one must ride behind (horse, hoarse).

Упражнение 125. Скажите, в каких формах совпадают приведенные ниже омонимы.

a paw, to pour; air, an heir; to die, to dye; to sew, to sow; to lead, lead; to desert, a desert; to lie (лежать), to lie (лгать)

Упражнение 126. Напишите под диктовку следующие словосочетания.

a polar bear; have fruit for dessert; sew on a button; soft fur; an heir to the title; at the head of a corps; to pay one's fare; after the sun rise; to dye wool

Упражнение 127. Переведите письменно на английский язык.

пришить пуговицу; единственный наследник; взять на десерт фрукты; дивизия и корпус; заплатить за проезд; кошачья лапа; ель; мех; медведь; хорошая погода; железная руда; высокий каблук; на следующей неделе

Упражнение 128. Передайте содержание следующих шуток. Скажите, на каком лингвистическом явлении они основаны.

  • A lady has just purchased a postage stamp at a post office. "Must I stick it on myself?" she asked.
  • "Positively not, madam," replied the clerk. "It will accomplish more if you stick it on the envelope."

* * *

  • A Scotchman was going on an excursion to New York. He handed the agent a ten-dollar bill as the agent called "Change at Jersey City."
  • "No jokes now - I want my change right away?" said the frightened Scotchman.

* * *

  • She: Now that we're engaged, dear, you'll give me a ring, won't you?
  • He: Yes, dear, certainly. What's your telephone number?

* * *

  • "When rain falls, does it ever get up again?"
  • "Yes, in dew time!"

* * *

  • "What's the difference between soldiers and girls?"
  • "The soldier faces powder. Girls powder faces."

Упражнение 129. Прочтите вслух и переведите предложения. Назовите паронимы выделенных слов и скажите, каково их значение.

1. On November 9 the newly elected Lord Mayor of London goes in a horse-drawn coach to the Law Courts to present himself to the Lord Chief Justice. 2. The jury are twelve men chosen to decide who has the better lawyer. 3. The context helps to understand the meaning of the word. 4. He was waving his hand to us from the pier. 5. Traffic laws in the USA vary from state to state. 6. The American word for 'petrol' is 'gas'. 7. Paul Griffiths will poll more votes. 8. Wonders never cease. 9. He is an eye specialist, not a surgeon. 10. The woman lost consciousness. 11. Conscience in some people does not keep them from doing things but prevents them from enjoying it. 12. Clay soil holds too much water and remains muddy after a rain. 13. His career was ruined. 14. There is no dairy shop in this neighbourhood. 15. Modal verbs do not express action. 16. The words 'corps' and 'corpse' both sprang from the Latin word 'corpus' (a body). 17. How long did you have to queue for the tickets? 18. He was summoned to the Personnel Department. 19. The coast is clear. 20. A man has less courage than a woman. Try to imagine one with twelve cents in his pocket trying on seven suits of clothes. 21. "Oh, mother! Just look at that man. He hasn't a hair on his head." "Hush, dear, he will hear you." "Oh, doesn't he know it?" 22. Doctor: All you require is more outdoor life; walk two or three miles every day. What's your business? Pattent: I'm a letter carrier." 23. Professor: Before we begin the examination, are there any questions? Student: What's the name of this course?" 24. The pub in England is a place where one can drink beer, discuss local news, talk politics or play darts. 25. If you smoke, you should travel in a smoking carriage.

Упражнение 130. Заполните пропуски, выбрав подходящий пароним.

campaign, company

1. The election ... in England lasts about a month. 2. It was Napoleon's last ... . 3. When ... stays too long, treat them like members of the family and they'll soon leave.


4. Misery loves ... . 5. Come along for ... . 6. Two are ..., three are none. 7. The film ... merged. 8. Don't talk about your diseases in ... .

canal, channel

1. The Panama ... was opened in 1914. 2. The banks of Venice's ... need reinforcing. 3. She looks as if she had just swum the English... . 4. The film is devoted to the builder of the Suez ... . 5. The Great Lakes are connected with ... .

cause, course

1. Let things take their ... . 2. They are devoted to their common ... . 3. You should decide on the ... of action. 4. He will have died in a good ... .5 The ... of justice is never furthered by shouting. 6. In the... of time he will realise it. 7. All the deaths were from natural ... . 8. There is no ... for worry.

cease, seize

1. When did they ... power? 2. The music ... but nobody moved. 3. When did the hostilities ...? 4. Wonders never ... . 5. Why didn't you ... the chance? 6. He ... the boy by the sleeve. 7. The noise ... .

conscience, consciousness, conscientious

1. He must have a guilty ... . 2. The synonym for 'faint' is 'lose...'. 3. ... is the voice that tells you not to do something after you have done it. 4. He is a ... student. 5. I'll do it with a clear ... .

context, contents, contest

1. I don't remember the ... of the letter. 2. The ... can change the meaning of the word. 3. Who won the... ? 4. I've never come across the word in this ... . 5. Look it up in the table of ... . 6. Have the ... of the bottle tested.

crash, crush

1. The lamp ... to the floor and the bulb burst. 2. The aircraft ... into the side of the hill. 3. He ... the paper cup and threw it away. 4. ... the ice. 5. The enemy was ... . 6. He was ... by grief. 7. Put the flowers in a box not to ... them. 8. The train ... into a goods train. 9. The clothes are all ... . They need pressing. 10. The uprising was ... . 11. The roof ... . 12. The plane ... on landing.


dairy , diary

1. Holland exports... produce. 2. When working at the book he made use of the composer's letters and ... . 3. Have you ever kept a ...? 4. Milk is sold at ... shops. 5. Butter, milk and cream are ... products.

human, humane

1. Such is ... nature. 2. The tragic loss of ... lives must be prevented. 3. Don't judge him so severely. Everybody is ... 4. It was a ... act. 5. He is a ... spider. 6. It's contrary to ... nature. 7. Jackdaws can be taught to make ... sounds. 8. It may be put down to ... weakness.

He, lay

1. Uneasy ... the head that wears a crown. 2. The foundation stone of the Albert Hall was ... by Queen Victoria. 3. That's where all her trouble ... . 4. On Armistice Day the Queen ... the wreaths at the Cenotaph. 5. Avoid ... in the sun. 6. You are not feeling well. Go home and ... down. 7. The table was ... for three. 8. Do not kill the goose that ... the golden eggs. 9. Exacting requirements were ... down. 10. You can have linoleum ... only in the kitchen. 11. You'll have to ... low for some time lest they should suspect anything. 12. The shower ... the dust. 13. The town ... in ruins. 14. The cornerstone of the White House was ... by George Washington. 15. You don't quite realise what difficulties... ahead. 16. The rabbit sometimes... a trap for the fox. 17. An orator is a fellow who is always ready to ... down your life for his country. 18. More than a hundred ships were... idle at the port when the strike was on. 19. I ... my wife beneath this stone for her repose and for my own. (Epitaph).

personal, personnel

1. He said he was a ... friend of the President. 2. The files are kept at the ... Department. 3. The door was marked 'Airline ... only'. 4. Present at the briefing were the flying officers as well as the ground ... 5. May I ask you a ... question? 6. The ... of the hospital must be prepared for any emergency.

price, prize

1. I'll buy it no matter what the ... . 2. You will get a... for correct answers. 3. Who got the ...? 4. Everything has


got a ... , just find out the amount. 5. A cynic is a man Who knows the ... of everything and the value of nothing.

quite, quiet

1. "How old is your grandmother?" "I don't know but we have had her for ... a while." 2. Keep... . 3. "How about going out tonight?" "I would rather have a ... evening at home." 4. I ... forgot about it. 5. All is ...

rise, arise, raise, arouse, rouse

1. The people ... to defend their country. 2. They ... their glasses and drank to absent friends. 3. Everybody agreed that it was necessary to ... the standard of the training. 4. The taxes were ... . 5. By how much did the taxes ... ? 6. His eyebrows ... in surprise. 7. It had been raining and the water in the river ... . 8. His words ... everybody's indignation. 9. The problem will be solved if unemployment falls and production ... . 10. You won't be allowed to enter the hall after the curtain ... . 11. When did the sun ... yesterday? 12. Don't ... dust. 13. The cost of living has ... considerably. 14. He ... and greeted the newcomers, 15. The workers demanded that their wages should be ... . 16. What ... your suspicions? 17. You needn't ...your voice. My hearing is perfect. 18. Take a cruise. It will ... you. 19, We were ... by loud voices. 20. His spirits ... . 21. The trip is sure to ... your spirits. 22. Who ... the alarm? 23. The Missouri River ... in the Rocky Mountains. 24. The membership of the organisation ... by two hundred men. 25. Coal in Great Britain ... by 20 percent.

Упражнение 131. Прочтите следующие слова. Скажите, что они означают, и назовите их паронимы.

  • А. major, pair, very, patrol, seize, sergeant, consciousness, soul, carrier, diary, corpse, quay, personal, carriage
  • Б. cause, collar, company, contents, coast, draught, heir, pour, sell, suit

Упражнение 132. Переведите письменно и прочтите вслух следующие словосочетания.

хороший хирург; карьера президента; содержание письма; модальные глаголы; во главе корпуса; с чистой совестью; молочный магазин; стоять в очереди за билетами; мэр Нью-Йорка; избирательная кампания; соблюдать тишину; потерять сознание


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