Классификация лексики по сходству значения

Упражнение 108. Сгруппируйте следующие слова и словосочетания в синонимичные пары.

omit a word; a looking glass; glasses; to ring smb. up; a wire; a dramatist; foot prints; a pen name; a shorthand typist; a mirror; to photograph smb.; to call smb. up; leave out a word; a playwright; spectacles; a telegram; foot marks; a pseudonym; a stenographer; to take a picture of smb.

Упражнение 109. Назовите словарные значения, в которых выделенные слова входят в состав приведенных семантических групп.

head, director, manager, leader; head, title, heading, caption; leader, editorial, leading article; leader, manager, director; pool, reservoir, lake, pond, puddle; pool, association, amalgamation; light, candle, lantern, searchlight; light, radiation, illumination, reflection; heart, centre, substance; heart, soul, nature; father, male parent, forefather; father, founder, patriarch; model, prototype, pattern; model, mannequin, lay figure; power, might, force; power, state, country

Упражнение 110. Объясните, используя данные словаря, почему следующие слова являются частичными синонимами. Назовите значения, в которых они совпадают.

tongue, language; dear, expensive; border, frontier; ripe, mature; infectious, catching; maze, labyrinth; object, objective; dumb, mute; survive, outlive; injection, shot; mean, stingy; leader, editorial

Упражнение 111. Докажите, используя данные словаря и собственные наблюдения, что следующие синонимы являются комбинаторно нетождественными.

border, frontier; water (в атрибутивном употреблении), aquatic; sick, ill; bay, gulf; live, alive; car, automobile (в атрибутивном употреблении); naval, nautical

Упражнение 112. Скажите, в чем заключается разница между следующими парами синонимов.

frog feet, flippers; radio, wireless; an orchard, a fruit garden; a hand, a claw (о руке человека); eyes, blinkers (о глазах человека); a conductor, a clippie; a soldier, a warrior; money, dough; to steal, to finger; a wet blanket, a killjoy

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Упражнение 113. Сравните значения следующих слов, пользуясь словарем.

  • А.враг, противник; источник, родник; международный, интернациональный; работа, труд; граница, рубеж; скупой, жадный; базар, рынок; товарищ, приятель
  • Б.catching, infectious; deep, profound; sense, meaning; antennae, aerial; tacit, silent; gift, present; hard, difficult; work, job; to stop, to cease; nill, zero

Упражнение 114. Установите, пользуясь словарем, какую стилистическую окраску имеют выделенные слова и словосочетания. Замените их стилистически нейтральными синонимами, выбрав последние из приведенного ниже списка.

1. Their discourse was interrupted. 2. He was dressed like a toff. 3. She passed away. 4. The old man kicked the bucket. 5. Where is Daddy? 6. Come on, let's put on steam. 7. Meet my better half. 8. He must have gone off his rocker. 9. The fire was extinguished. 10. Pray, proceed. 11. Come down to brass tacks. 12. Jack took his departure. 13. Well, let's drift. 14. Somebody has nailed my bag. 15. This is a case for a vet. 16. He is a joiner.

a doctor, to steal, to go, to leave, to go on, please, to put out, come to the point, to go out of one's mind, a wife, a father, to die, talk, a gentleman, good company

Упражнение 115. Сгруппируйте предложения в пары так, чтобы в одном случае мысль была выражена с меньшей, а в другом - с большей точностью.

1. The man was poisoned. 2. She looked at him. 3. He is an officer. 4. It's an old car. 5. She was wearing a black dress. 6. They built a boat. 7. The man was murdered. 8. She stared at me. 9. He is a colonel. 10. It's an old vehicle. 11. She was wearing a dark dress. 12. They built a yacht. 13. He was executed. 14. He was electrocuted.

Упражнение 116. Скажите, как изменится смысл высказывания, если заменить выделенные слова приведенными в скобках ложными синонимами. Установите, к какому типу принадлежат использованные ложные синонимы.

1. The man is famous (well-known). 2. The man is famous (notorious). 3. Ted is a relative (a cousin) of mine. 4. Ted is an acquaintance (a fellow-student) of mine. 5. He is my fellow-countryman (my neighbour). 6. He died in an accident (a car accident). 7. It was doctor Manson who treated

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(cured) him. 8. I hate borrowing (lending) things. 9. He was awarded an order (a medal). 10. The story is abridged (adapted).

Упражнение 117. Переведите диалоги. Скажите, какими лингвистическими причинами вызваны неточности в речи одного из говорящих.

  • "Now let's go up on deck."
  • "What a funny window, it's quite round."
  • "You should call it a port-hole. Only an inexperienced traveller would call it a window."

* * *

  • "What a big chimney!"
  • "Good gracious! Don't disgrace yourself by letting anyone hear you call it a chimney. Have you never heard of a funnel?"
  • "Well, it looks like a chimney, and smoke is coming out of it."
  • "It is a chimney but it is called a funnel."

(BBC, English by Radio)

Упражнение 118. Заполните пропуски, выбрав подходящий синоним.

accept, adopt, take

1. The invitation was ... . 2. The Declaration of Independence of thirteen American colonies was ... in Philadelphia on the fourth of July, 1776. 3. The Prime Minister advises the Queen to dissolve parliament and she, of course, ... his advice. 4. How did he... the news? 5. The minister handed in his resignation but it was not... . 6. The situation was dangerous. Urgent measures had to be... . 7. Dr Dodd doesn't... patients on Sundays. 8. He challenged me to try it and I... the challenge. 9. When is he going to... office as Speaker? 10. The world changes and one has got to... change.

accident, incident, case

1. Drunken driving and speeding may cause... . 2. She died in a road... . 3. He never mentioned the... to anyone. 4. He soon forgot this funny... . 5. The doctor says it is a dangerous ... . 6. There were six... of cholera in the country. 7. The... was closed for lack of evidence.

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avoid, escape

1. ... committing yourself. 2. He dyed his hair to ... being recognised. 3. He ... being arrested by a miracle. 4. Stick to one tense, ... shifting of tenses. 5. ... using archaic words. 6. ... repetition. 7. We... unharmed. 8. ... taking sleeping pills. 9. They ... punishment.

convince, persuade

1. He is hard to... . 2. She was... to give in. 3. I doubt if you will manage to ... him to support you. 4. There is something in what you say. But still I am not ... . 5. To ... him to change his mind will take some doing. 6. I ... myself to keep out.

interfere with smth., prevent

1. A stumble may ... a fall. 2. The differences are serious enough to ... agreement. 3. Varying the routine ... boredom. 4. An agreement was concluded to ... incidents at sea.

judge, try

1. Do not ... people by their clothes. 2. Never... anyone by another's opinion. We all have different sides that show to different people. 3. Nobody can ... what's best for anyone else. 4. He was ... for murder.

justify, acquit

1. He was...for lack of evidence. 2. The end... the means. 3. He didn't ... my faith in him. 4. I don't approve of his actions, neither does she... his behaviour. 5. Was he convicted or ...?

offer, suggest

1. The manager... that the project should be changed. 2. Who ... the idea? 3. She... to pack the things. 4. It seemed that life had nothing to ... her. 5. He ... me a cigarette. 6. The hotel... superior comfort for reasonable prices. (Advertisement). 7. How much did he ... for the car? 8. ... her a cup of tea. 9. He didn't ... any explanation and the matter rested at that. 10. This is my plan. What do you ...? 11. He ... a change of tactics. 12. He ... himself for election.

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