Нейтральные образования

Упражнение 32. Переведите словосочетания. Скажите, какую особенность английского языка иллюстрируют эти примеры.

1. family doctor, doctor family; 2. business district, district business; 3. boat deck, deck boat; 4. deck lounge, lounge deck; 5. laboratory research, research laboratory; 6. flower garden, garden flower; 7. child problem, problem child; 8. horse race, race horse; 9. life boat, boat life; 10. pet shop, shop pet

Упражнение 33. Переведите словосочетания с существительным в роли препозитивного определения. Сделайте вывод о семантике атрибутивного существительного.


  • А. silver coin; floor lamp; evening school; hair pin; loyalty test; request stop; college professor
  • Б. war office, war orphan; table cloth, table manners; boat desk, boat train; question time, question mark
  • В. plane report; journal dispute; hotel advertisement; holiday argument; press challenge; laboratory incident

Упражнение 34. Переведите следующие словосочетания с существительным в функции препозитивного определения. Скажите, каково значение атрибутивных существительных в этих примерах и в чем отличие словосочетаний типа pain killer от сложнопроизводных слов типа week ender.

shock absorber, money earner, speed indicator, nylon whitener, trouble maker, distance runner, a hundred percenter, a lie detector, a lawn mower, a record player, brain trusters, a simple lifer, a page oner, a second rater, a fire eater, a card player, a do gooder

Упражнение 35. а) Разграничьте существительные, выступающие как однородные препозитивные определения, и подчинительные субстантивные сочетания в функции препозитивного определения..

a green protective zone; acceptable peace terms; mental hospital staff; urgent safety measures; a longer holiday claim; automatic direction finder; stale cigar smoke; joint nuclear research; a full time job; a beauty contest winner

б) Переведите словосочетания. Прокомментируйте характер препозитивных определений.

  • А. 1. special | reception committee; 2. special reception committee; 3. Saturday | Shopping Guide; 4. Saturday Shopping Guide; 5. the Conservative party leaders; 6. the conservative | party leaders; 7. a modern | art exhibition; 8. a modern art exhibition; 9. a primitive | art exhibition; 10. a primitive art exhibition; 11. a dirty | work shirt; 12. a dirty work shirt
  • Б. 1. last minute decision, last public appearance; 2. Best Actor Award, best feature film; 3. open flower shop, open air show; 4. accurate weather forecast, accurate account demand; 5. old tennis player, old age home; 6. good floor polisher, good will visit; 7. long bus drive, long distance call; 8. full wine glass, full page advertisement
  • В. a quick weight loss diet; a high wire circus family; an adequate city transport system; a good quality dark rain coat; long range transport aircraft; a dual track tape recorder; a polished brass front door handle; a close range assault weapon; a slow speed news summary; long term low interest credits; low frequency radio signals; a big printed notice; an old battered suitcase; dirty waxed paper; a tall uniformed air hostess


  • Г. a long distance bus; a long distance bus accident; Common market. countries; Common market countries foreign policy; a large scale attack; a large scale conventional infantry attack; a front page newspaper hero; a front page newspaper hero behaviour

Упражнение 36. Переведите словосочетания, содержащие в качестве одного из однородных препозитивных определений сложное слово.

car transported food stuff and medical supplies; enemy provoked border clashes; a dark blue sea island cotton shirt; a tank mounted search light; a jungle capable rifle company; tired bundle laden shoppers; Polaris equipped military bases; a man portable recoiless rifle; ready to serve smoked ham; state run television net works; fifteen day motorcoach tour of Ireland with a plan-as-you-go itinerary; round the clock medical service; truck transported pre-built units

Упражнение 37. Выберите из приведенных ниже примеров образования типа a) crying children; б) sliding doors; в) sleeping pills; г) sewing machine. Прокомментируйте их состав, семантику и акцентное строение.

  • А. quarrelling neighbours, swinging doors, rising prices, a hanging lamp, rustling leaves, a winding path, a leading article, a folding rule, a jumping frog, a cooling system, a creeping plant, a revolving turret, a barking dog, a talking bird
  • Б. operating table, operating surgeon; climbing equipment, climbing tourists; laughing eyes, laughing gas; sleeping children; sleeping bag; reading lamp, reading public; writing clerks, writing implements

Упражнение 38. Трансформируйте словосочетания, содержащие нейтральные образования, в словосочетания "существительное + постпозитивное определение". Например: word-building suffixes = suffixes that build words или suffixes used for word building.

a passenger-carrying vehicle; a fact-finding mission; a gold buying fever; a labour-saving device; an armour-piercing shell; a camera-carrying case; a rocket-launching site; a film-processing laboratory; a pilot-training centre; pilot-training


personnel; car-repairing facilities; car-repairing mechanics; heart-breaking news; world-shattering events; an epoch-making decision; peace-loving people

Упражнение 39. Разграничьте словосочетания и предложения и переведите их. Определите природу единиц с суффиксом -ing и образований, в состав которых они входят.

1. Buses moving at walking speed. 2. The buses were moving at walking speed. 3. Some recording devices look like hearing aids. 4. Sound recording devices used in teaching. 5. A bridge building policy they adhere to. 6. He was charged with bag snatching and car stealing. 7. The flying officers and the ground personnel. 8. River forcing operations to be carried out at dawn. 9. Forcing the river in such weather would be difficult. 10. In case of emergency use the life-saving jacket. 11. A crushing blow they struck at the enemy. 12. There is hot running water in the cottage. 13. A leaf dancing in the wind. 14. Driving a faulty vehicle may result in an accident. 15. She does not believe in fortune telling. 16. Wage earning workers are paid weekly, usually getting their wages in cash. 17. Radiation measuring instruments. 18. Instruments measuring the depth of the ocean. 19. Bottling up one's reactions is harmful. 20. She looked like a surgeon approaching the operating table for a difficult and dangerous operation. 21. The man's being so scared seemed to underline the fact that there was something to be scared about. 22. Studies show reckless driving causes accidents. 23. Striving to better we often mar what's good.

Упражнение 40. Переведите словосочетания, содержащие в качестве однородных препозитивных определений нейтральное образование с суффиксом -ing.

the yacht club parking space; a small head hugging hat; a hard time consuming job; military significant nuclear weapon detecting system; a book lined sitting room; eyecatching life-size film posters; a do-it-yourself crime solving experiment; major oil consuming nations

Упражнение 41. Разграничьте предложения и словосочетания. Переведите их и прокомментируйте их состав. Скажите, какие особенности английского языка могут затруднить перевод.

1. Saddle leather boots they wear in Texas. 2. Stainless steel film clips are indispensable when developing roll films. 3. New electrical garbage disposal equipment. 4. Hot house


grapes sell well. 5. Crease resistant machine washable fabrics. 6. Helicopter flown jungle capable troops. 7. The light casualty list amounted to thirty people. 8. Solving problems equals success. 9. Avoid habit forming drugs. 10. Road safety centres run by local authorities. 11. First run movie theatres. 12. Corrugated iron painted bright red. 13. Glacier lined Gulf of Alaska. 14. Liquid crystals cloud when an electric charge is applied.


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