Сложные слова

Упражнение 22. Определите природу выделенных элементов. Скажите, какую особенность английского языка иллюстрируют приведенные примеры.

1. have a bitter taste; to taste bitter; tasteless food; 2. a bus stop; to stop suddenly; make a stopover; a non-stop train; 3. to take care of one's family; a careless driver; lead a carefree life; 4. to post letters; to postmark letters; 5. a sharp needle; a needle sharp antenna; 6. a big star; to star in a film; a star spangled banner

Упражнение 23. Назовите сложные слова, образованные а) компрессией, б) основосложением. Скажите, в чем заключается суть каждого из способов.

knowledge-hungry eyes; a fact-filled report; technical-minded people; a struggle-for-lifer; a low-ceilinged room; an out of shape sweater; a cover up attempt; a civil righter; to blacklist a person; a true to life story; two lane traffic; psycho-therapy; a wine-red carpet; Soviet-educated specialists; a five-power conference; iron-poor blood; war-weary people

Упражнение 24. Определите способ образования сложных слов и переведите их.

  1. the take off and the landing of the plane; a traffic hold up; a cold rubdown in the morning; dine at a drive in; to come to a stand still
  2. a suitcase and a hold all; find a cure all; a loafer and a do-nothing; thrifty people and spend alls
  3. to flighttest a plane; to blackball a candidate; to roadtest a car; to whitewash a criminal; to sugarcoat the pill; to blacklist a person
  4. end of term examinations; a spur of the moment decision; end of speed zone; a dime in the slot telescope; value for money models
  5. a heart-to-heart talk; a wall-to-wall carpet; a dusk-to-dawn curfew; a ground-to-air missile; hand-to-hand fighting; an area-by-area investigation
  6. an off the record talk; round the clock service; after the event wisdom; behind the scenes talks; up to date information; an out of tune piano
  7. a knock out game; drop out statistics; a pull on hat; a turn-down collar; at a virtually give away price; a sit-in strike; a calendar with tear off leaves

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  1. easy to follow instructions; hard to please people; ready-to-serve food; easy-to-assemble houses; a hard to believe story
  2. world-famous names; world-wide fame; an age-long custom; get home-sick; feel car sick, a bottle green coat
  3. a dark-brown suit; light-green curtains
  4. radio-transmitted signals; hand-made carpets; time-tested friendship; propeller-driven vehicles; laughter-filled eyes; home made goods; London born Irishmen
  5. a three-page letter; a three-stage rocket; two-stage elections; a nine-storey building; a two-way street; a four-lane road; a ten gallon tank

Упражнение 25. Назовите словосочетания, на базе которых образованы следующие сложнопроизводные слова. Переведите словосочетания и слова.

an out-of-towner; to go goose-fleshy; a first nighter; an East Ender; a West Pointer; a water colourist; a black marketeer; even-tempered people; deep-rooted habits; a long-tailed monkey; level-headed diplomats; war-minded politicians; a sit downer; a general fedupness; matter-of-factness; a no-gooder

Упражнение 26. Назовите сложные слова, аналогичные по составу и способу образования словам a take off; to flighttest; a last minuter; a week erider; world-famous; three-page (letter); strong-willed; radio-transmitted.

a break-through; a horse-drawn coach; a dark-haired girl; a century-old custom; a four-power agreement; a shortsighted man; a snow-white dress; a show off; to sandpaper the surface; frost-bitten fruit; a left winger; a back bencher; to sidetrack a person; honeymooners

Упражнение 27. а) Выберите словосочетания, содержащие сложные слова типа radio-transmitted, и переведите их. Скажите, как образуются сложные слова такого типа и каковы их морфологический состав и значение.

б) Выберите словосочетания, содержащие сложнопроизводные слова типа dark-haired, и переведите их. Скажите, как образуются сложные слова такого типа и каковы их морфологический состав и значение.

a dull-faced fellow; weather-ruined houses; long-stemmed flowers; radar-located targets; progressive-minded politicians; jealousy-divided communities; nuclear-powered submarines; a paper-littered table; evil-hearted people

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в) Разграничьте предложения и словосочетания. Переведите их. Скажите, какая особенность английского языка может затруднить перевод.

1. The company charted flight. 2. The company charted the flight. 3. The enemy encircled tank unit. 4. The enemy encircled the tank unit. 5. The war devastated the country. 6. The war devastated country. 7. The committee approved the decision. 8. The committee approved decision. 9. The rain soaked soil. 10. The rain soaked the soil. 11. The water damaged the floor. 12. The water damaged floor. 13. The rain ruined the coat. 14. The rain ruined coat.

г) Перефразируйте словосочетания, используя сложные прилагательные типа radio-transmitted.

the territory held by the enemy; a photograph covered with dust; organisations controlled by the government; a campaign financed by the state; a lake lit by the moon; mountains covered with snow; a Frenchman born in London; a resolution approved by the committee; a coach drawn by a horse; fur made by man

д) Перефразируйте словосочетания, используя сложнопроизводные прилагательные типа dark-haired.

a girl with grey eyes; shoes having low heels; shoes having rubber soles; a man with red hair; a man with broad shoulders; a girl with a dull face; hands with short fingers; spectacles with a horn rim; a hat with a broad brim; a fellow with an open heart; a brush with a long handle; a blouse with a high neck

Упражнение 28. Перефразируйте словосочетания, используя сложные прилагательные типа world-famous.

hands as cold as stone; a question as clear as crystal; lipstick as pink as a cherry; hair as grey as silver; a dress as green as moss

Упражнение 29. Перефразируйте словосочетания, используя сложные прилагательные типа three-page (letter).

an agreement having five points; a distance of three miles; a job to be completed in ten years; a lecture lasting two hours; a banknote the value of which is ten pounds; an agreement concluded by four powers; a ride lasting three hours; a delay of fifteen minutes

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Упражнение 30. Образуйте сложные глаголы на базе приведенных ниже сочетаний. Объясните, в чем заключается суть такого способа словообразования.

holiday making, holiday maker; tape recording, tape-recorder; spring cleaning; dressmaking, dressmaker; air conditioning, air conditioner; dry cleaning; body snatching; sabre rattling; sunbathing; lip reading; spoonfeeding

Упражнение 31. Найдите сложные слова и определите способ их образования.

1. It was a do-or-die for me. 2. That would be a sit-on-the-fence policy. 3. We'll buy him a put-it-together toy set. 4. I don't need advice from a hasbeen. 5. The diet is recommended for too fats. 6. I'm sick and tired of your don'ts. 7. Are they still hand and glove friends? 8. The paper frontpages the news. 9. They are week-ending in the counrty. 10. The dress is not hand-washable. 11. The house is a walk up. 12. She was wearing a light-green dress. 13. Colourblind people are not allowed to take a driving test. 14. The car is a two seater. 15. A walkover is an easy victory. 16. He tried to make a getaway. 17. This is my life long conviction. 18. These goods are duty-free. 19. The material is water repellant and crease resistant. 20. A turnback is a cowardly person. 21. The office is shortstaffed. 22. The man is a full timer. 23. Don't be a middle-of-the roader. 24. The demonstrators were teargased. 25. They attended a two hour lecture. 26. The missile was testfired last week. 27. The radioactive fallout in the London area has increased. 28. The astronauts were waiting for a countdown. 29. Who taught you to skindive?

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