Морфологический состав слова. Омонимия морфем и словоформ

Упражнение 1. Скажите, какие грамматические формы входят в понятие следующих слов.

a boy; big; to carry; a driver; loud; to ask; to spend

Упражнение 2. Разделите слова на морфемы. Скажите, что является условием морфологической членимости основы.

undivided, undernurishment, shorten, worker, power, foretell, forget, marriage, voyage, remove, repeat, biography, visible

Упражнение 3. а) Скажите, какое значение имеют формоизменительные суффиксы -s и -ed в следующих примерах.

1. Не guards the prisoners. 2. She mixes paints. 3. The secretary types letters. 4. They criticised the book. 5. The story discussed isn't bad. 6. The frightened child ran away.

б) Скажите, формами каких частей речи могут быть следующие формы. Объясните, почему это нельзя установить точно. Скажите, какие дополнительные сведения для этого необходимы.

hags, vats, haunches, quenches, tempts, gnats, gluts, scones, trotted, flared, flabbergasted

в) Перечислите словоформы, в состав которых входят формоизменительные суффиксы -s, -ed, -er, -ing.

Упражнение 4. а) Назовите формы слов, не имеющие положительно выраженного показателя грамматического значения. Скажите, каково значение нулевой флексии в каждом случае.

1. Paint the wall. 2. Secretaries type letters. 3. He wants to hang the picture in his study. 4. Cold water will refresh you. 5. Most children like sweets.

б) Скажите, формами каких частей речи могут быть следующие формы. Объясните, почему это нельзя установить точно, и скажите, какие дополнительные сведения для этого необходимы.


pert, bur, blunge, trite, trope, glum, freak, fad, hew, mew, flurr, curr

в) Перечислите формы слов, не имеющие в современном английском языке положительного показателя грамматического значения (т. в. имеющие нулевую флексию).

Упражнение 5. Скажите, в каком случае в результате добавления аффикса образуется а) новое слово, б) грамматическая форма того же слова.

candidate - candidates; to study - studies; help - helpful; name - nameless; care - cares; care - cared; teach - teacher; god - goddes; neat - neatly; friend - friendly

Упражнение 6. Скажите, в каких случаях можно определить, формой какой части речи является словарная форма, и объясните, почему это возможно.

defeatist, commutation, malicious, jeopardise, dignity, charted, vintage, modify, crib, spool

Упражнение 7. Установите характер выделенных суффиксов. Назовите суффиксы, омонимичные выделенным, и скажите, каково их значение.

1. Believing is forgiving. 2. You can't pick relatives, but you can pick friends. 3. Why be so unfriendly? 4. Actions speak louder than words. 5. The old guard dies but never surrenders. 6. Short-tempered people are hard to deal with.

Упражнение 8. Переведите предложения. Установите, в каких случаях суффиксы -s и -'s являются словообразовательными, и объясните почему.

1. Enthusiasm works wonders. 2. There was an explosion in the glass works. 3. There aren't many authorities on physics here. 4. The project has been approved by the authorities. 5. What are the latest developments? 6. Do not scatter yourself in so many directions. 7. Follow the directions. 8. He was buried with military honours. 9. When translating, translate thoughts, not words. 10. Do not exceed your powers. 11. Have the prescription filled at the chemist's. 12. It's yesterday's news. 13. You get value for your money at Macy's. (Advertisement). 14. Sugar catches more flies than vinegar.

Упражнение 9. а) Переведите предложения. Назовите слова, родственные выделенным, но отличающиеся от них наличием или отсутствием суффикса -s, и скажите, какое значение они имеют.

1. Cloth is material made by weaving of wool, cotton, silk, etc. A cloth is a piece of this material used for a special purpose, as a dish cloth (for washing dishes, plates, etc.);


a table cloth (one of white linen, put on the table at meal times). (A dictionary definition). 2. They went in the opposite direction. 3. His brother graduated with honours. 4. She is not interested in the humanities. 5. The travellers had to go through the customs first. 6. They went to the pictures to while away the time. 7. The defendant was cleared but had to pay the damages. 8. The troops have been kept in the country since the disturbances began. 9. I beat him at draughts. 10. The talks will not be resumed until the differences are removed. 11. He spoke mainly about the latest developments in Northern Ireland. 12. He was told to apply to the local authorities. 13. The American Constitution divides the powers of the Government into three branches - the executive, the legislative and the judicial. 14. Clothes make the man. 15. What is the driving power that animates him? 16. If the work is worth doing, it is worth doing well. 17. Perfume and liquor are liable to duty. 18. Custom is second nature. 19. A guard of honour is a number of persons (e.g. soldiers) chosen to escort a distinguished person in order to show respect. (A dictionary definition).

б) Заполните пропуски, выбрав нужное слово.

authority, authorities

1. The US Constitution gives Congress ... to make laws. 2. I have no ... to allow it. 3. He was reprimanded by the ... . 4. He is no ... on phonetics. 5. Report to the local ... . 6. I ordered him to be taken to the ... .

cloth, clothes

1. Do not judge people by their ... . 2. The child has outgrown his ... . 3. They are cut from the same ... . 4. Cut your coat according to your ... . 5. She bought a length of ... . 6. No man can make a good coat with bad ... .

damage, damages

1. The fire caused a lot of ... . 2. They had to repair the recent flood ... first. 3. You'll have to pay the ... . 4. When do you think the ... can be repaired? 5. The ... caused is estimated at four million dollars.

disturbance, disturbances

1. Apologise for the ... you've caused. 2. Urgent measures were taken to deal with the ... . 3. The troops will not be withdrawn till the end of ... .


duty, duties

1. It is the ... of every citizen to defend his country in case of war. 2. Public officials may be removed from office for failing to perform their ... . 3. You'll have to pay customs ... on these goods. 4. The signal from Nelson's flagship read "England expects that every man will do his ... . 5. One must learn to delegate one's ... .

talk, talks

1. My ... with George didn't help any. 2. The ... will be resumed the moment the new Prime Minister takes office. 3. It will cause a lot of ... among the staff. 4. A joint communique was issued after the ... .

в) Переведите предложения на английский язык, выбрав нужное слово.

1. Его одежда была порвана (cloth, clothes). 2. Попросите разрешение у начальства (authority, authorities). 3. Я не имею полномочий решать такие вопросы (authority, authorities). 4. Он окончил школу с отличием (honour, honours). 5. Повреждения, нанесенные городу в результате воздушного налета, были очень велики (damage, damages). 6. Мои разговоры с Джоном не дали никаких результатов (talk, talks). 7. Руководствуйтесь инструкцией (direction, directions). 8. В обязанности почтальона входит доставка писем и посылок (duty, duties).

Упражнение 10. Назовите а) формоизменительные суффиксы, имеющие омонимы; б) словообразовательные аффиксы, имеющие омонимы; в) словообразовательные аффиксы, имеющие омонимичные формоизменительные аффиксы.

Упражнение 11. а) Установите, формами каких слов являются выделенные слова. Скажите, какие особенности английского языка иллюстрируют приведенные ниже примеры.

1. Reduce troubles to their proper proportions. 2. What troubles you today will amuse you tomorrow. 3. Milk is good for everybody. 4. It was done for your own good. 5. Rain drops patter on the window pane. 6. If production drops, prices will go up. 7. I'll be surprised if he backs a loser. 8. Paper backs cost cheap. 9. Gulf depths yield oil. 10. The corn yield has risen by more than 40 per cent. 11. Empty vessels make the greatest sound. 12. Return empties here. 13. The river empties into the ocean. 14. The students room together. 15. The students' room is upstairs. 16. The flower


faded. 17. Some flower at the room temperature. 18. Fortune favours the brave. 19. Be thankful for small favours. 20. Sweets cause tooth decay. 21. They are devoted to the common cause.

б) Переведите предложения, пользуясь словарем. Скажите, какие особенности английского языка могут затруднить перевод.

1. Milk shakes taste sweet. 2. Persistent blame saps selfconfidence. 3. Serve the wine chilled. 4. Ink stains come out. 5. Apply brakes parking on steep incline. 6. Goods purchased are not refundable. 7. Beetles drone but flies buzz. 8. Can meat and fruit. 9. Drought spells disaster. 10. Choice cuts cost dear. 11. Plants discharge gas. 12. Air pockets cause bumps. 13. Lemon drops taste nice. 14. Anger breeds false courage. 15. Brake cars at curves. 16. Charge off the taxi fares to business expenses. 17. Wood smoke woke me. 18. Damp napkins keep sandwiches moist. 19. The book features animals. 20. Soft water leaves hair lustrous. 21. Birds hawk insects. 22. Fashion favours pure new wool. 23. Automobile exhaust gases foul the air. 24. Credit cards spread the cost over a period of time. 25. Such clothes date.


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