Примечания

Глава первая

1См., напр.: Sydnor Ch.S. Gentlemen Freeholders. Chapel Hill, 1952; McCormick R.P. The History of Voting in New Jersey: A Study of the Development of Election Machinery. 1664-1911. New Brunswick, 1953; Brown R.E. Middle Class Democracy and the Revolution in Massachusetts. 1691-1780. Ithaca, 1955; Brown R.E., Brown B.K. Virginia 1705-1786: Democracy or Aristocracy? Michigan, 1964.

2Williamson Ch. American Suffrage. From Property to Democracy 1760-1860. Princeton, 1968. P. 22-23; Roiwenc E.C. The Making of American Society. An Institutional and Intellectual History of the United States. Boston, 1972. P. 130; Dargo G. Roots of the Republic. A New Perspective on Early American Constitutionalism. N.Y. -Wash., 1974. P 137.

3См подробнее: Буран С.Н. Конфликт или согласие? Социальные проблемы Юга США (1642-1763). М., 1980. С. 85-121; История США. В четырех томах. Т. 1. М., 1983. С. 55-58.

4Слезкин Л.Ю. У истоков американской истории: Массачусетс, Мэриленд, 1630-1642. М., 1980.

5Roiwenc E.C. Op.cit. P. 58-62.

6Morgan E.S. Inventing the People: the Rise of Popular Sovereignty in England and America. NY, L, 1988. P. 123.

7Kelly A.H., Harbison W.A. The American Constitution. Its Origins and Developments. NY, 1970. P. 17-18.

8Паррингтон В.Л. Основные течения американской мысли. М., 1962. Т. 1. С. 105.

9Там же. С. 120.

10" LederL.H. Liberty and Authority: Early American Political Ideology, 1689-1763. Chicago, 1968. P. 52,58.

11Robbins C. The Eighteenth Century Common-Wealth: Studies in the Transmission, Development and Circumstances of English Liberal Thought from the Restoration of Charles II Until the War with the Thirteen Colonies. Cambridge (Mass.), 1959; Bailyn B. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge (Mass.), 1967.

12Locke J. Second Treatise of Civil Government. An Essay Concerning the True Original Extent and End of the Civil Government. Michigan, 1971. P. 26-29, 32-34, 49-79.

13Bailyn B. Op.cit. P. 35-37.

14Цит. по: Bailyn B. The Origins of American Politics. Cambridge (Mass.), 1968. P. 59.

15Greene E.B. The Provincial Governor in the English Colonies of North America. Cambridge, 1898; Labaree L.W. Royal Government in America: A Study of the British Colonial System Before 1783. New Haven (Conn.), 1930; Bailyn B. The Origins of American Politics. Cambridge (Mass.). 1968. Chapter 2.

365

16Greene J.P. The Quest for Power: the Lower Houses of Assembly in the Southern Royal Colonies, 1689-1776. Chapel Hill, 1963; Pole J.R. Political Representation in England and the Origins of the American Republic.NY., 1966; Bailyn B. The Origins of American Politics; Morgan E.S. Inventing the People.

17The Letters of Richard Henry Lee. NY., 1970. Vol. 1. P. 190-191.

18Labaree L.W. Conservatism in Early American History. NY., 1962. P. 27.

19Becker C. The History of Political Parties in the Province of New York, 1760-1776. Madison, 1909. P. 11; idem. The Unites States: An Experiment in Democracy. NY., 1920. P. 35-36; RossiterC.L. Seedtime of the Republic: The Origin of the American Tradition of Liberty. NY., 1953. P. 20; Brown R.E. Middle Class Democracy and the Revolution in Massachusetts; Brown R.E., Brown B.K. Virginia 1705-1786; Williamson Ch. American Suffrage. P. 22-23.

20Williamson Ch. Op.cit. P. 12-13.

21Dinkin R.J. Voting in Provincial America. A Study of Elections in the Thirteen Colonies. 1689-1776. Westport (Conn.), 1977. P. 31-34.

22Dargo G. Op.cit. P. 132.

23Dinkin R.J. Op.cit. P. 51-52.

24Main J. T. The Social Structure of the Revolutionary America. Princeton, 1965. P. 270-277.

25Labaree L. W. Op. cit. P. 4.

26Dinkin R.J. Op.cit. P. 60.

27Palmer R.R. The Age of Democratic Revolution: Political History of Europe and America, 1760-1800. Princeton, 1959. Vol. 1. P. 48-52.

28Main J.T. Political Parties before the Constitution. Chapel Hill, 1973. P. 9.

29Daniel J.R. Experiment in Republicanism. New Hampshire Politics and the American Revolution. 1741-1794. Cambridge (Mass.), 1970. P. 9-10, 22-23.

30Lovejoy D.S. Rhode Island Politics and the American Revolution. 1760-1776. Providence, 1958. P. 18.

31The Works of John Adams. Vols 1-10/ Ed.Ch.F.Adams. Boston, 1850-1856. Vol. 10. P. 282-283.

32Documents of American History. Vols 1-2/ Ed.H.S.Commager. NY., 1945. Vol. 1. P. 45.

33Otis J. The Rights of British Colonies Asserted and Proved// Pamphlets of the American Revolution/ Ed.B.Bailyn. Cambridge (Mass.), 1965. Vol. 1. P. 437-439.

34Ibidem.

35The Writings of Samuel Adams. Vols 1-4/ Ed.H.S.Cushing. NY., 1968. Vol. 1. P. 67.

36Benjamin Franklin's Letters to the Press. Williamsburg, 1950. P. 48, 88,110,111,135,136; The Works of Benjamin Franklin. Vols 1-10/ Ed.J.Sparks. Boston. 1840. Vol. 4. P. 262, 272, 281, 284, 286, 295, 298; Vol. 7. P. 332, 333, 391, 392, 476, 486, 497.

37The Works of Benjamin Franklin. Vol. 4. P. 295.

366

38The Writings of Samuel Adams. Vol. 3. P. 262.

39The Complete Writings of Thomas Paine. Vols 1-2/ Ed.P.S.Foner. NY, 1945. Vol. l.P. 2.

40Lewis J. Thomas Paine, the Author of Declaration of Independence. NY., 1947. P. 51.

41Jensen M. The Founding of a Nation: A History of the American Revolution. NY., 1968. P. 669.

42Пейн Т. Избр. соч. М.,1959. С. 42.

43Там же. С. 208.

44См.: Согрин В.В. Идейные течения в Американской революции XVIII века. М., 1980. С. 126.

45Текст Декларации см. в кн.: Американские просветители. Избранные произведения в 2-х томах. Т. 2. М.,1969. С. 27-33.

46Цит. по: The American Revolution, Now Revolutionary Was It?/ Ed. G.A.Billias. NY., 1970. P. 20.

47Цит. по: Фурсенко А.А. Американская революция и образование США. Л., 1978. С. 192.

Глава вторая

1Wood G.S. The Creation of the American Republic. 1776-1787. Williamsburg, 1969. P. 128.

2The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Vols 1-21/ Ed. J.P.Boyd. Princeton, 1950-1983. Vol.1. P. 292.

3The Adams Papers. Sen I. Diaries. Vols 1-4/ Col.J.H.Butterfield. Cambridge (Mass.), 1961. Vol. 3. P. 352.

4Main J.T. Political Parties before the Constitution. Chapel Hill, 1973.

5Siatmary D.P. Shay's Rebellion. The Making of an Agrarian Insurrection. Amhers, 1980. P. 37-70.

6Jameson J. American Revolution Considered as a Social Movement. Princeton, 1926. P. 47, 81-84; Jensen M. The American Revolution Within America. NY., 1974. P. 74-76.

7Douglass E.P. Rebels and Democrats. The Struggle for Equal Political Rights and Majority Rule During the American Revolution. Chapel Hill, 1955. P. 266.

8AbernethyT.P. Western Lands and the American Revolution. NY., 1959. P. 303.

9The Writings of Benjamin Franklin. Vols 1-10/ Ed.A.H.Smyth. NY., L., 1905-1907. Vol. 8. P. 604.

10The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Vol. 1. P. 490-492.

11The Complete Writings of Thomas Paine. Vols 1-2/ Ed.P.Foner. NY., 1945. Vol. I. P. 377.

12The Popular Sources of Political Authority: Documents on the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780. Cambridge (Mass.), 1966. P. 34, 481; Douglass E.P. Op.cit. P. 15-16.

367

13Williamson Ch. American Suffrage from Property to Democracy. 1760-1860. Princeton, 1960. P. 92-115.

14Jensen M. The American Revolution Within America. P. 95-98.

15The Writings of Benjamin Franklin. Vol. 10. P. 58, 59.

16The Popular Sources of Political Authority. P. 247.

17Main J. T. The Sovereign States. NY, 1973. P. 205.

18Main J.T. The Upper House in Revolutionary America. 1963-1788. Madison-L, 1967. P. 101, 124-125, 133, 160-161, 187, 188-191.

19Wood G.S. Op.cit. P. 132-143.

20The Popular Sources of Political Authority. P. 248.

21The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution. Vol. 1. Constitutional Documents and Records. 1776-1787/ Ed.M. Jensen. Madison, 1976. P. 86.

22См., напр.: Jensen M. The Articles of Confederation: an Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774-1781. Madison, 1963.

23Об их позиции в этом вопросе см.: Согрин В.В. Идейные течения в Американской революции XVIII века. М., 1980. С. 194-200.

24Main J.T. The Antifederalists. Chapel Hill, 1961. P. 266.

25Letters of Members of Continental Congress. Vols 1-8/ Ed.E.G.Burnett. Gloucester (Mass.), 1963. Vol. 5. P. 305, 478, 504, 536, 547; Vol. 6. P. 41-42, 58.

26The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vols 1-26/ Ed.H.C.Syrett. NY, L., 1961-1979. Vol. 2. P. 400, 402-404, 408, 651, 654, 661-665, 670, 671; Vol. 3. P. 114.

27Ibid. Vol. 3. P. 549.

28Wood G.S. Op.cit. P. 403.

29Letters of Members of Continental Congress. Vol. 7. P. 199, 209, 212, 216, 220.

30The Writings of James Madison. Vols 1-9/ Ed.G. Hunt. NY, 1900-1910. Vol. 2. P. 277, 283, 301, 305, 316, 319, 321, 322, 339, 340.

31Letters of Members of Continental Congress. Vol. 8. P. 492, 505, 517, 554; The Writings of George Washington. Vols 1-39/ Ed.J.C.Fitzpatrick. Washington, 1931-1944. Vol. 29. P. 51, 52; The Correspondence and Public papers of John Jay. Vols 1-4/ Ed.H.P.Johnson. NY, L., 1971. Vol. 3. P. 212-215.

32The Life of Elbridge Gerry. With Contemporary Letters. Vols 1-2/ Ed.J.N. Austin. NY, 1970. Vol. 2. P. 7.

33Letters of Members of Continental Congress. Vol. 8. P. 510, 511.

34The Works of John Adams. Vols 1-10/ Ed.Ch.F.Adams. Boston. 1850-1856. Vol. 4. P. 392-397.

35The Writings of James Madison. Vol. 2. P. 366; The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. Vols 1-4/ Ed.M. Farrand. New Haven, L., 1966. Vol. 1. P. 422; The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol. 4. P. 192.

36The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol.4. P. 218; The Federalist Papers/ Ed.C.Rossiter. NY. 1961. P. 79.

368

37The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol. 4. P. 218-219.

38The Records of the Federal Convention. Vol. 1. P. 422-423.

39Beard Ch.A. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States. NY., 1913. P. 324.

40Schlesinger A.M. New Veiw Points in American History. NY, 1922. P. 81-83, 184-199; Faulkner H.U. Economic History of the United States. NY, 1928. P. 57-58; Shannon F.A. Economic History of the People of the United States. NY, 1928. P. 132-136. Main J. T. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution. 1781-1788. Chapel Hill, 1961; Idem. The Sovereign States. 1775-1783. NY, 1973; Idem. Political Parties Before the Constitution. Chapel Hill, 1973; Lynd S. Class Conflict, Slavery and the United States Constitution. Indianapolis, 1967; Jensen M. The American Revolution Within America. NY, 1974; Wood G.S. The Creation of the American Republic. 1776-1787. Williamsburg, 1969; Idem. The Confederation and Constitution. Boston, 1973.

41Brown R.E. Charles Beard and the Constitution: A Critical Analysis of "An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution". Princeton, 1956; McDonald F. We the People: the Economic Origins of the Constitution. Chicago, 1958.; Rossiter C. The Grand Convention. NY, 1965; Kirk R. The Roots of American Order. La Salle (111.), 1974; Burns J.M. The American Experiment. The Vine Yard of Liberty. NY, 1982; Ketcham R. Presidents Above Party: the First American Presidency. 1788-1829. Chapel Hill. 1984.

42Eidelberg T. The Philosophy of the American Constitution: A Reinterpretation of the Intentions of the Founding Fathers. NY, 1968.

43Hofstadter R. The American Political Tradition and Men Who Made It. NY, 1948. P. 3-17; Commager H.S. The Empire of Reason: How Europe Imagined and America Realized the Enlightenment. NY, 1977.

44The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. Vol. 1. P. 135, 136, 420-422.

45Ibid. P. 48-51.

46Ibid. P. 533, 534, 542; The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol. 4. P. 504-512; Pamphlets on the Constitution of the United States/ Ed.P.L. Ford. NY, 1968. P. 254.

47См.: Согрин В.В. Идейные течения в Американской революции XVIII века. С. 262.

48The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol. 4. P. 73.

49The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. Vol. 1. P. 136, 138, 148, 150, 151, 219, 421, 422, 512, 513, 544; The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol.4. P. 184-187.

50The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol.4. P. 563, 564: The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. Vol. 1. P. 151.

51См.: Ibid. Vol. 1. P .148, 149, 218, 219, 414, 426, 430, 521.

52The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution. Vol. 1. P. 243.

53The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. Vol. 1. P. 214, 215, 339, 361, 365.

54The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. Vol. 2. P. 35; The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol. 4. P. 609, 619. 13 Зак. Na 2914 Согрин

369

55The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. Vol. 1. P. 86, 87; Vol. 2. P. 33, 52,55, 114.

56См.: Паррингтон В.Л. Основные течения американской мысли. Тт. 1-3. М., 1962-1963. Т. 1.С. 376.

57The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. Vol. 1. P. 68,69; Vol. 2. P. 33, 59.

58Ильинский И.П., Мишин А.А., ЭнтинЛ.М. Политическая система современного капитализма. М., 1983. С. 234.

59Ушаков В.А. Америка при Вашингтоне: политические и социально-экономические проблемы США в 1789-1797 гг. Л., 1983. С. 19; Становление американского государства. СПб., 1992. С. 129-130.

60Конституция США. История и современность. М., 1988. С. 77.

61Цит. по: Main J. Т. The Antifederalists. P. 166.

62The Letters of Richard Henry Lee. Vols 1-2/ Ed.J.C.Ballagh. NY, 1970. Vol. 2. P. 433, 438, 442-443; The Papers of George Mason. Vols 1-3./ Ed.R.A.Rutland. Chapel Hill, 1970. Vol. 3. P. 880-881, 916, 972, 981, 989, 1050.

63The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol. 11. P. 429.

64The Washington Papers/ Ed.S.Padover. NY, 1955. P. 317-318.

65Cunningham N.E. The Jeffersonian Republicans. Chapel Hill, 1957. P. 134.

66Koch A. The Philosophy of Thomas Jefferson. NY, 1943. P. 122.

67The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol. 11. P. 429.

68The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. Vols. 1-10/ Ed.P.LFord. NY, L., 1892-1899. Vol. 6. P. 95.

69The Writings of James Madison. Vol. 6. P. 104-123.

70Taylor J. A Definition of Parties, or the Political Effects of the Paper System Considered. Phila., 1794.

71The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol. 11. P. 427.

72Cunningham N.E. Op.cit. P. 147-181.

73Fischer D.H. The Revolution of American Conservatism: the Federalist Party in the Era of Jeffersonian Democracy. NY, 1965. P. 53-70.

74BassettJ.S. The Federalist System. NY, 1906; Beard Ch.A. Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democarcy. NY, 1914: Bowers C. Jefferson and Hamilton: A Struggle for Democracy in America. L., 1925; Brown S.C. The First Republicans. Syracuse (NY), 1954.

75Buel R. jr. Securing the Revolution: Ideology in American Politics, 1789-1815. Ithaca (N.Y), 1972; ZvesperJ. Political Philosophy and Rhetoric: a Study of the Origins of American Party Politics. NY, 1977.

76The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol.6. P. 65-168.; Vol.7. P. 305-342; Vol. 10. P. 230-340.

77Ушаков В.А. Америка при Вашингтоне. С. 193-196.

78Bell R.M. Party and Faction in American Politics: the House of Representatives 1789-1801. Westport (Conn.), 1973. P. 21, 49-51.

79Annals of Congress. I Congr., 2 Sess. P. 546-548, 1180-1182.

370

80Banning L. The JctTcrsonian Persuasion: The Evolution of the Party Ideology. Ithaca; L. 1978. P. 181-197, 204-205; ZvesperJ. Op.cit. P. 123-135.

81Circular Letters of Congressmen to Their Constituents 1789-1829. Vols i-3/Ed. N.E. Cunningham, jr. Chapel Hill, 1978. Vol. 1. P. 254.

82Annals of Congress. 11 Congr, 2 Sess. P. 1906.

83Fischer D.H. Op.cit. P. 172.

84Documents Relating to New England Federalism, 1800-1815/ Ed.H.Adams. Boston, 1877. P. 347, 363.

85Annals of Congress. 7 Congr., 1 Sess. P. 41.

86The Works of Fischer Ames. Vols 1-2/ Ed.S.Ames. NY, 1969. Vol. 2. P. 4.

87Sharp J.R. American Politics in the Early Republic: the New Nation in Crisis. New Haven. L, 1993. P. 177.

88Political Writings of John Adams/ Ed.G.A.Peak. NY., 1954. P. 170.

89The Adams-Jefferson Letters. Vols 1-2/ Ed.L.J.Cappon. Chapel Hill. 1959. Vol. l.P. 255.

90The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol. 7. P. 49-51.

91Ibid. Vol. 15. P. 34-56, 60-61, 90-95, 130-135.

92The Works of Fischer Ames. Vol. 2. P. 130.

93The Works of Thomas Jefferson. Vols 1-12/ Ed.P.L.Ford. NY, 1904-1905. Vol. 12. P. 136.

94Burch P.M. jr. Elites in American History. The Federalist Years to the Civil War. NY, L., 1981. P. 68-69, 114-115.

95A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents. Vols 1 - 10/ Ed.J.D.Richardson. Wash., 1903. Vol. 1. P. 328, 330, 379, 409.

96Risjord N.K. Old Republicans: Southern Conservatism in the Age of Jefferson. NY, 1965.

97Beard Ch.A. Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy. NY, 1915. P. 356.

98A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents. Vol. 1. P. 379

99The Writings of James Madison. Vol. 8. P. 248, 326, 339, 341, 342.

100Miller J.C. The Wolf by the Ears. Thomas Jefferson and Slavery. NY, 1977. P. 123.

101Конституция США. История и современность. М., 1988. С. 96.

102См., напр.: Черниговский З.М. От Маршалла до Уоррена. Очерки истории Верховного суда США. М., 1982. С. 27-28.

103Ellis R.E. The Jeffersonian Crisis. Courts and Politics in the Young Republic. NY, 1971. P. 77-81.

104A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents. Vol. 1. P. 385.

105Prusha F.D. The Sword of the Republic. The United States Army on the Frontier. 1783-1846. L, 1969. P. 60.

106Cunningham N.E. The Prosess of Government Under Jefferson. Prinseton, 1978. P. 128.

107A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents. Vol. 1. P. 343.

371

108Chatining E. The JctTersonian System, 1800-1811. NY., 1968. P. 62. ""

109Fischer D.H. Op.cit. P. 151, 325.

110Ibid. P. 325.

111Annals of Congress. 10 Congr, 2 Sess. P. 1497-1498; 14 Congr., 1 Sess. P. 699-703; 13 Congr., 1 Sess. P. 275-285.

112Life and Correspondence of Rufus King. Vols 1-6/ Ed.Ch.R.King. NY. 1894-1900. Vol. 5. P. 37-38.

Глава третья

1Tocquille A.de. Democracy in America. Two Volumes in One. NY., 1851. P. 52-55, 187, 191, 192, 204-205, 211, 269, 275, 276, 293.

2Turner F.J. The Frontier in American History. NY., 1920. P. 247-328.

3Beard Ch.A., Beard M.R. The Rise of American Civilization. Vols 1-2. NY., 1927. Vol. 1. P. 542.

4Паррингтон В.Л. Основные течения американской мысли. Т. 1-3. 1962-1963. Т. 2. С. 173.

5SchlesingerA.M.jr. The Age of Jackson. Boston, 1945. P. 133, 142.

6Harti L. The Liberal Tradition in America: An Interpretation of American Political Thought Since the Revolution. NY., 1955; The Genius of American Politics. Chicago. 1953.

7Benson L. The Concept of Jacksonian Democracy: New York As a Test Case. Princeton, 1961.

8Pessen E. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality and Politics. Urbana and Chicago, 1985.

9Hofstadter R. The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It. NY., 1948; Hammond B. Banks and Politics in America. Princeton, 1957. Историография джексоновской демократии проанализирована в монографии Н.Н. Болховити-нова "США: проблемы истории и современная историография" (М., 1980).

10Ashworth J. "Agrarians" and "Aristocrats". Party Political Ideology in the United States 1837-1846. L., 1983; Idem. Slavery, Capitalism and Politics in the Antebellum Republic. Vol. 1. Commerce and Compromise, 1820-1850. Cambridge, 1995; McPherson J.M. Ordeal by Fire. The Civil Warand Reconstruction. NY., 1992. P. 24-25.

11См.: Шпатов Б.М. Промышленный переворот в США (в 2-х частях). М., 1991.

12McPherson J.M. Op.cit. P. 10.

13Ibid. P. 6-15; Puth R.C. American Economic History. Chicago, 1988. P. 142-151.

14North D. The Economic Growth of the United States. 1790-1860. Englewood Cliffs, 1961.

15Williamson J.G., Linden P.H. American Inequality. A Macroeconomic History. NY., 1980. P. 36-37.

372

16Pessen E. Op.cit. P. 80-97.

17McPherson J.M. Op.cit. P. 23.

18ТоквильА.де. О демократии в Америке. М., 1897. С. 321.

19См., напр.: Черниловский З.М. От Маршалла до Уоррена. Очерки истории Верховного суда США. М., 1982. С. 52.

20Williamson СИ. American Suffrage: From Property to Democracy 1760-1860. Princeton, 1968. P. 209.

21Jones M.A. The Limits of Liberty. American History 1607-1992. NY., 1995. P. 136; Formisano R.P. The Transformation of Political Culture. Massachusetts Parties. 1790-1840-s. NY, 1983. P. 30; McCormick R.L. The Party Period and Public Policy. American Politics from the Age of Jackson to the Progressive Era. NY., 1986. P. 164.

22The Papers of Andrew Jackson. Vols 1-2/ Ed.S.B.Smith et al. Knoxville, University of Tennessee, 1980-1984. Vol. 1. P. 40, 74, 116-117.

23Correspondence of Andrew Jackson. Vols 1-7/ EdJ.S.Basset, J.F.Jameson. Wash., 1926-1935. Vol. 3. P. 269, 412.

24McCormick R.L. The Party Period and Public Policy. American Politics From the Age of Jackson to the Progressive Era. NY, 1986.

25McGerr M.E. The Decline of Popular Politics. The American North. 1865-1928. NY, 1986. P. 14-15.

26Pessen E. Op.cit. P .236-243.

27Burch P.M. jr. Elites in American History. Vol.1. The Federalist Year to the Civil War. NY, L., 1981. P. 240-252.

28Gatel F. O. Money and Party in Jacksonian America// Political Science Quarterly. 1967. №2. P. 235-252.

29Holt M.F. The Democratic Party 1828-1960// History of U.S.Political Parties. Vols 1-4/Ed.A.M.Schlesinger. jr. NY, 1973. Vol. 1. P. 513.

30Watson H.L. Liberty and Power. The Politics of Jacksonian America. NY, 1990. P. 236-237.

31Van Buren M. Inquiry Into the Origins and Course of Political Parties in the United States. NY, 1967.

32Цит. по: Ashworth J. "Agrarians" and "Aristocrats". P. 49.

33См., подробнее: Маныкин А.С. История двухпартийной системы США 1789-1980 (спецкурс). М., 1981. С. 42-50; Принципы функционирования двухпартийной системы США: история и современные тенденции. Часть 1. Конец XVIII в. - 1917 г. М., 1988. С. 97-120; Van Deusen G.S. The Whig Party// History of U.S.Political Parties. Vol. 1. P. 338-362; Ashworth J. "Agrarians" and "Aristocrats". P. 114-115, 168-171; Idem. Slavery, Capitalism and Politics in the Antebellum Republic. Vol. 1. P. 460-465.

34National Party Platforms 1840-1972/ Ed.K. Porter and D.Johnson. Urbana, 1974. P. 3,4, 37.

35Legget W. The Devision of Parties// Social Theories of Jacksonian Democracy/ Ed.J.L.Blau. NY., 1947. P. 67; Schlesinger A.M. jr. Op.cit. P. 312.

373

36A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents 1789-1897. Vols 1-11/ EdJ.D.Richardson. Wash.. 1900. Vol. 2. P. 590.

37Van Deusen G.C. Major Party Thought and Theory// New Perspectives on Jacksonian Parties and Politics/ Ed.E.Pessen. Boston, 1969. P. 146-153: Ashworth J. "Agrarians" and "Aristocrats". P. 64-71, 76-77.

38Social Theories of Jacksonian Democracy. P. 22.

39National Party Platforms. P. 3.

40Remini R. The Democratic Party in Jacksonian Era// Democrats and the American Idea/ Ed.P.V.Kovler. Wash., 1992. P. 43.

41Cole D.B. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson. Lawrence (Kansas), 1993. P. 64-67.

42История США. В четырех томах. Т. 1. М., 1983. С. 317.

43Wilson M.J. The Presidency of Martin Van Buren. Lawrence (Kansas), 1984. P. 123; Milkis S.M., Nelson M. The American Presidency. Origins and Development. 1776-1993. Wash., 1994. P. 134; Van Deusen C.C. The Rise and Decline of Jacksonian Democracy. Huntington (N.Y.), 1979. P. 66-67.

44Либеральная традиция в США и ее творцы. М., 1997. С. 71.

45Pessen Е. Jacksonian America. P. 218-229; McCormick R.L. The Party Period and Public Policy. P. 210-211.

46Encyclopedia of American History/ Ed. R.B.Morris. NY, 1976. P. 560.

47A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents. Vol. 3. P. 69-93.

48Schlesinger A.M.jr. Op.cit. P. 324-325; Kelly A.N., Harbison W.A. The American Constitution. ItsOrigin&and Development. NY, 1970. P. 343.

49McDonald F. The American Presidency. An Intellectual History. Lawrence (Kansas), 1994. P. 317; Remini R.V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom. NY, 1982. P. 192.

50Latner R.B. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson. White House Politics 1829-1837. Athens, 1979. P. 52.

51Cole D. B. Op.cit. P. 90.

52KleppnerP. The Third Electoral System. 1853-1892: Parties, Voters and Political Culture. Chapel Hill, 1979; Formicano R.P. The Birth of Mass Political Parties: Michigan, 1827-1861. Princeton, 1971; Holt M.F. Forging a Majority: The Formation of the Republican Party in Pittsburgh. 1848-1860. New Haven, 1969; SilbeyJ.H. The Transformation of American Politics. 1840-1860. Englewood Cliffs, 1967.

53Fehrenbacher D.E. South and Three Sectional Crisis. Baton Rouge, 1980; Idem. Sectional Crisis and Southern Constitutionalism. Baton Rouge and London, 1995; Foner E. Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War. NY., 1980; McPherson J.M. Ordeal by Fire. The Civil War and Reconstruction. NY, 1992; McCormick R.L. The Party Period and Public Policy. NY, 1986; Reid B.H. The Origins of the American Civil War. L, NY, 1996.

54Foner E. Op.cit. P. 19.

55Fogel R. W., Engerman S.L. Time on the Cross. 2 vols. Boston, 1974. Vol. I. P. 44.

374

56" Ransom R.L., Sutch R. One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation. Cambridge, 1977. P. 3-4.

57Bancroft F. Slave Trading in the Old South. NY, 1931.

58Franklin J.H. The Militant South. 1800-1861. Cambridge, 1956.

59Sydnor Ch.S. The Development of Southern Sectionalism. 1819-1848. Baton Rouge, 1948. P. 95.

60The Papers of John C.Calhoun. Vols 1-16/ Ed.W.E.Hemphill, C.N.Wilson. University of South Carolina (Columbia), 1959-1985. Vol. 10. P. 462; Vol. 12 P. 550; Vol. 13. P. 64, 103, 394-396; Vol. 16. P. 348-349.

61Hofstadter R. The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It. NY, 1948. P. 68.

62Tocqueville A.de. Democracy in America. Vols 1-2. NY., 1945. Vol. 1. P. 259-260, 370-373, 390-392, 397.

63Litwack L.F. North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860. Chicago, 1961. P. 16,29,79.

64Ibid. P. 40-43.

65Wiecek W.M. The Sources of Antislavery Constitutionalism in America, 1760-1848. Ithaca; L., 1977. P. 168-169.

66The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison. Vols 1-4/ Ed.W.M.Merill, L.Ruchames. Cambridge (Mass.), 1975. Vol. 1. P. 540, 563; Vol. 2. P. 138; Vol. 4 P. 3, 75, 89, 651.

67National Party Platforms. P. 7-15.

68McPherson J.N. Ordeal by Fire. P. 88.

69The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison. Vol. 4. P. 405, 408-409, 496, 567-574.

70Цит. по: Foner E. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. London etc,. 1970. P. 39.

71The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln: Vols 1-9/ Ed. R.F.Easier. New Brunswick (N.Y), 1953-1955. Vol. 3. P. 462, 477, 479; Vol. 5. P. 52.

72National Party Platforms. P. 48-49.

73The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. Vol. 2. P. 452, 461; Vol. 3. P. 92; Vol.4. P. 2-3, 16-17.

74Foner E. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men. P. 41, 45, 63, 140-141, 146-151, 164, 188-189, 269, 281, 290-291, 294-295.

75The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. Vol. 2. P. 405, 409, 520, 546-547; Vol. 3. P. 16, 83, 146, 222.

76Ibid. Vol. 5. P. 371.

77Ibid. Vol. 2. P. 323.

78Fitzhugh G. Sociology for the South or the Failure of the Free Society. Richmond, 1854. P. 184, 190-191; Idem. Cannibals All! Or Slaves Without Masters. Cambridge, 1960. P. 66, 78-82, 107, 133, 135.

79Ibid. P. 5, 29-30, 190-198, 207; Idem. Sociology for the South. P. 17, 18, 31, 105,138-139,190-193,202.

80National Partv Platforms. P. 53-55.

375

81Encyclopedia of American History/ Ed.K.B.Morris. NY, 1976. P. 636.

82Маныкин А.С. История двухпартийной системы США. С. 75.

83National Party Platforms. P. 61.

84Ibid. P. 59.

85 Kelly A.H., Harbison W.A. Op.cit. P. 412-416, 420-422, 437-449.

86Ibid. P. 430, 440-441, 444-449.

87McDonald F. The American Presidency. P. 320.

88Из новейших работ см.: Foner E. Reconstruction. America's Unfinished Revolution. 1863-1877. NY, 1988. P. 179-181, 191; McPherson J.M. Op.cit. P. 494-497; Trefousse H.L. Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson: a Comparison// A Crisis of Republicanism. American Politics in the Civil War Era/ Ed.L.E.Ambrosius. L., 1990. P. 112-123.

84Vital Statistics on American Politics/ Ed.H.W.Stanley, R.G.Niemi. Wash., 1992. P. 276.

85Foner E. Reconstruction. America's Unfinished Revolution. P. 237.

86McPherson J.M. Op.cit. P. 530.

87Jones M.A. The Limits of Liberty. American History 1607-1992. NY, 1995. P. 252.

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1Josephson M. The Politicos, 1865-1896. NY, 1938. P. 230.

2Burch P.H. jr. Elites in American History. Vol. 2. The Civil War to New Deal. NY, 1981. P. 69-71.

3Мозолин В.П. Корпорации, монополии и право в США. М., 1966. С. 38-41.

4Puth R.C. Americam Economic History. Chicago, 1988. P.374.

5Argersinger P.H. Structure, Process and Party. Essays on American Political History. NY, 1992. P. 48-57.

6Kousser M. The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One - Party South: 1880-1910. New Haven, 1974. P 55.

7McGerr M.E. The Decline of Popular Politics. The American North. 1865-1928. NY, 1986. P. 7.

8McGerr M.E. Op.cit.

9Burch P.H.Jr. Op.cit. Vol. 2. P. 320-321.

10Брайс Д. Американская республика. В 3-х частях. М., 1889. Ч. 1. С. 6.

11Josephson M. Op.cit. P. 62.

12Russel F. President Makers. From Mark Hanna to Joseph P.Kennedy. Boston, 1976.

13Josephson M. Op.cit. P. 151.

14Dobson J.M. Politics in the Guilded Age. NY, 1972. P. 28-31.

15McConnick R.P. The Presidential Game. The Origins of American Presidential Politics. NY, 1982. P. 224.

376

16Morgan N.W. From Hayes to McKinley. National Party Politics. 1877-1896. NY, 1969. P. 297.

17Hofstadter R. The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It. NY, 1948. P. 172.

18White L.D. The Republican Era: 1869-1901. A Study in Administrative History. NY, 1958. P. 301, 307, 310, 320, 348.

19National Party Platforms. 1840-1972/ Ed.K. Porter and D.Johnson. Urbana, 1974. P. 114.

20Ibid. P. 65-67, 76-77, 86-89, 98-99, 114-115.

21Kirkland E.C. Industry Comes of Age: Business, Labor and Public Policy, 1860-1897. NY, 1967. P. 35, 36.

22 United States Reports: Cases Adjusted in the Supreme Court. NY, Wash., 1876 - Vol. 167. P. 479; Vol. 168. P. 144.

23The Statutes at Large of the USA. Vol.26. Wash., 1891. P. 209-210.

24SeagerH.R. Quilick Ch.A. jr. Trust and Corporation Problem. NY, 1929. P. 341-348.

25United States Reports. Vol. 156. P. 1.

26Ibid. Vol. 166. P. 290.

27Koenig L.W. W.Bryan. A Political Biography of William Jennings Bryan. NY,

1971. P. 103.

28Josephson M. Op.cit. P. 445.

29De Santis P. Republican Party Revisited. 1877-1897// Guilded Age. A Reapraisal/ Ed.H.W.Morgan. NY, 1963. P. 98.

30Rothman D.S. Politics and Power: the United States Senate, 1865-1901. Cambridge (Mass.), 1966. P. 4-5, 42-45, 60-61, 74-75.

31DobsonJ.M. Op.cit. P. 33.

32Конституция США: история и современность. М., 1988. С. 138-155.

33Фанер Ф. История рабочего движения в США. В 5 тт. М., 1949-1983. Т. 1. С. 190.

34Сивачев Н.В. Правовое регулирование трудовых отношений в США. М., 1972. С. 15.

35Громаков Б.С. Антидемократическое законодательство США. М., 1957. С. 62-65.

36 United States Reports. Vol. 158. P. 564.

37Ibid. Vol. 109. P. 3-63.

38Ibid. Vol. 163. P. 537.

39Ibid. Vol. 170. P. 213.

40Hofstadter R. The Age of Reform: From Bryan to FDR. NY, 1955. P. 64.

41National Party Platforms. P. 90-91.

42Ibidem.

43Bellamy E. Looking Backward. Boston (Mass.), 1888; Idem. Equality. NY, 1897. " Powderly T. Thirty Years of Labor. 1859 to 1889. Colambus, 1890. P. 453.

45Kipnh1. The American Socialist Movement. 1897-1912. NY, 1957. P. 13.

377

46Ginger R. Eugene Debs: a Biography. NY, 1962. P. 234.

47ДеЛеон Д. Избр. произв. М., Л., 1934. С. 4, 14, 79.

48Spargo J. The Common Sense of Socialism. Chicago, 1911. P. 91, 126; Hilquit M. Socialism in Theory and Practice. NY, 1912. P. 169; Kipnis]. Op.cit. P. 112.

49Haywood W. The General Strike. NY, 1912. P. 13, 14.

50См. об этом: Согрин В.В. Идеология в американской истории. От отцов-основателей до конца XX века. М., 1995.

51HofstadterR. Social Darvinism in American Thought. NY, 1944. P. 57.

52Sumner W.G. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. NY, 1920. P. 119-120.

53Ward L. Pure Sociology: a Treatise on the Origin and Spontaneous Development of Society. NY, 1903. P. 16-17.

54Ward L. Applied Sociology. A Treatise on the Conscious Improvement of Society by Society. NY, 1906. P. 31.

55Adams U.S. Relation of the State to Industrial Action and Economics and Jurisprudence: Two Essays. NY, 1954. P. 144-145.

56Ely R. Studies in the Evolution of Industrial Society. NY, 1903. P. 85.

57Цит. по: Согрин В.В. Идеология в американской истории. С. 125.

58Croly H. The Promise of American Life. NY., 1909. P. 26-35.

59Smith J.A. The Spirit of American Government. NY., 1907; Beard Ch.A. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States. NY, 1913.

60Weyl W. The New Democracy. NY., 1913.

61История США. В четырех томах. Т. 2. М., 1985. С. 246.

62McCormick R.L. The Party Period and Public Policy. American Politics from the Age of Jackson to the Progressive Era. NY, 1986. P. 343.

6National Рапу Platforms. P. 144-147.

64Ibid. P. 168-171. "

65Ibid. P. 175-178.

66Wilson W. The New Freedom. NY, 1913. P. 163, 165-166, 172, 179-180, 192-193,212-216.

67 Clements K.A. The Presidency of Wood row Wilson. Lawrence (Kansas), 1992. P. 51.

68Argersinger P.H. Structure, Process and Party. Essays on American Political History. NY, 1992. P. 63.

69La Fcbcr W.. Po/cnhcrg R.. Woloch N. The American Century. A History of the United States Since 1890's. NY.. 19K6. P. 105.

70Gould L.L. The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Lawrence (Kansas), 1991. I' 213-214.

71Kelly А П.. Harbison W.A. The American Constitution. Its Origins and Development. NY. 1970. P. 609-610.

72История США. В четырех томах. Т. 2. С. 252-253.

73Milkis S.M.. Nelson M. The American Presidency. Origins and Development 1776-1993. Wash.. 1994. P. 20N--2I2.

378

74Gregg G.L. The Presidential Republic. Executive Representation and Deliberate Deniocarcy. Lanham, 1997. P. 100-102.

75Kelly A.H., Harbison W.A. Op.cit. P. 629.

76Hofstadter R. The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F.D.R. NY., 1955; Goldman E. Rendezvous with Destiny. A History of Modern American Reform. NY, 1956.

77Kolko G. The Triumph of Conservatism: A Reinterpretation of American History. 1900-1916. NY., 1963; Idem. Railroads and Regulation. 1877-1916. Princeton, 1965; Idem. Main Currents in Modern American History. NY., 1976; Weinstein J. The Corporate Ideal in the Liberal State. 1900-1918. Boston, 1968; Williams W.A. Americans in a Changing World. A History of the United States in the Twentieth Century. NY., 1978.

78Burch P.M. jr. Op.cit. Vol. 2. P. 202-203.

79La Feber W., Polenberg R., Woloch N. Op.cit. P. 110-119.

80Burch P.H.jr. Op.cit. Vol. 2. P. 292.

81Hoover H. Challenge to Liberty. NY., 1934. P. 110.

82 Burner D. The Politics of Provincialism. The Democratic Party in Transition. 1918-1932. NY., 1968. P. 131.

Глава пятая

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2Vital Statistics on American Politics/ Ed.H.W.Stanley, R.G.Niemi. Wash., 1992. P.410.

3Roosevelt F.D. Looking Forward. NY., 1933. P. 29, 31-33.

4Сивачев Н.В., Язьков Е.Ф. Новейшая история США. М., 1980. С. 96, 104-105.

5Либеральная традиция в США и ее творцы. М., 1997. С. 204.

6Nothing to Fear: The Selected Addresses of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. 1932-1945. Cambridge, 1946. P. 170.

7Сивачев H.B., Язьков Е.Ф. Указ. соч. С. 119.

8Тамже. С. 141, 161-162, 303-304.

9Puth R.C. American Economic History. Chicago, 1988. P. 593.

10Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. Wash., 1996. P. 332; Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 377.

11Сивачев H.B., Язьков Е.Ф. Указ. соч. С. 209.

12Larson A. Republican Looks at His Party. NY., 1956. P. 117, 131, 147.

13Kristol 1. Two Cheers for American Capitalism. NY., 1978. P. 30, 56-57. 125.

14Vital Statistic-son American Politics. P. 410-411.

15Клипов В.Г. Экономический рост США: ретроспектива и перспектива// США. Экономика, политика, идеология. 1998. №7. С. 4-5. 14, 17.

16Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. P. 332-333; Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 357.

379

17Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. P. 332.

18Клипов В.Г. Указ. соч. С. 4.

19Сивачев Н.В., Язьков Е.Ф. Указ. соч. С. 243.

20ПарканскийА.Б. Экономические позиции США в многополярном мире на пороге XXI в.// США. Экономика, политика, идеология. 1998. №9. С. 6.

21Clinton W.J. Between Hope and History. Meeting America's Challenge for the 21-st Century. NY, 1996. P. XII, 9, 27.

22Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. P. 337; Spitzer R.J. President and Congress. Executive Hegemony and the Crossroads of American Government. Phila., 1993. P. 112-113.

23Богачева О. США: шестой год стабильного экономического подъема// Мировая экономика и международные отношения. 1998. №8. С. 66.

24Clinton W.J. Op.cit. P. 25.

25Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 373-374; Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. P. 461.

26Рассчитано по: Statistical Abstract of the United States 1960. Wash., 1960. P. 319.

27Puth R.C. Op.cit. P. 606.

28Encyclopedia of American Social History. Vols 1-3/ Ed.K.Cayton et al. NY, 1993. Vol. 1.P.479.

29La Feber W. Polengerg, Woloch N. The American Century. A History of the United States Since 1890's. NY, 1986. P. 543.

30The American Quarter Century. US Politics from Vietnam to Clinton/ Ed.PJ.Davies. Manchester and NY, 1995. P. 15.

31Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. P. 467.

32Statistical Abstract of the United States 1960. Wash., 1960. P. 318; Statistical Abstract of the United States 1970. Wash., 1970. P. 323; Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. Wash., 1996. P. 467; The New York Times. 30.IX.1997.

33Ricci D.M. The Transformation of American Politics. New Haven, 1993. P. 35.

34Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. P. 436.

35Smeeding T.M. Why the U.S. Antipoverty System Doesn't Work Very Well// Challenge. January - Ferbuary 1992. P. 31.

36Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. P. 472.

37Ibid. P. 473; The American Quarter Century. P. 17, 18.

38ЗайченкоА.С. Социальное обеспечение: пенсии, льготы, пособия// США. Экономика, политика, идеология. 1989. №10. С. 19.

39Bernstein M. Social Security. NY, 1987. P. 10.

40Зайченко А.С. Указ.соч. С. 22.

41Ronald Reagan's Weekly Radio Addresses: the President Speaks to America/ Сотр.F.L.Israel. Wilmington (Del.), 1987. Vol. 1. P. 1, 9, 10, 22, 85, 90-91, 98-99.

42Horowitz D.A. Beyond Lett and Right. Insurgency and the Establishment. Urbana and Chicago, 1997. P. 302.

380

43The Clinton Presidency. First Appraisals/ Ed.G.Gambell, B.A.Rockman. Chatam(New Jersey), 1996. P. 112-121.

44Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 391.

45Ibid. P. 201; Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. P. 279.

46Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. P. 461, 472-473; Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 373, 375, 400; The American Quarter Century. P. 168-171; La Feber W., Polenberg R., Woloch N. Op.cit. P. 551.

47The New York Times. 26.IX. 1997.

48Encyclopedia of American History/ Ed.R.B.Morris. NY., 1976. P. 656-657.

49Encyclopedia of American Social History. Vols 1-3. NY, 1993. Vbl. 1. P. 181-182, 587.

50Jones M.A. The Limits of Liberty. American History 1607-1992. NY., 1995. P. 624-629.

51Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. P. 10-11.

52См.: Баталов Э.Я. Социальная утопия и утопическое сознание в США. М., 1982. С. 284-286.

53Beard Ch.A. The Republic. NY., 1943.

54SchlesingerA.M.jr. The Age of Jackson. Boston, 1945.

55Nicholas И.О. The Nature of American Politics. Oxford, 1986. P. 9.

56См. напр.: Dahl R.A. A Pluralistic Democracy in America. Conflict and Consensus. Chicago, 1967; Idem. Polyarchy, Participation and Opposition. New Haven (Conn.), 1971; Idem. Democracy in the United States. Promise and Performance. Boston, 1981; Idem. Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven (Conn.), 1989.

57Dahl R.A. Democracy in the United States. P. 435-445.

58Berle A. jr. The 20-th Century Capitalist Revolution. NY, 1954; Galbraith J.K. American Capitalism: The Concept of Counterwailing Power. Boston, 1952; Idem. The New Industrial State. Chicago, L., 1967.

59Bentley A. The Process of Government. Chicago, 1908; Truman D. The Government Process. NY, 1951.

60Подробное изложение аргументов защитников политического элитаризма см.: Дай Т.Р., Зиглер Л.Х. Демократия для элиты. Введение в американскую политику. М, 1984. С. 34-47.

61Kolko G. Railroads and Regulation. 1877-1916. Princeton, 1965; Idem. The Triumph of Conservatism. NY, 1963.

62Mills C.R. The Power Elite. NY., 1956; Idem. Power, Politics and People. NY, 1963.

63DomhoffG. W. The Higher Circles. The Governing Class in America. NY., 1970; Idem. The Powers That Be. Process of Ruling-Class Domination in America. NY, 1979; Idem. The Power Elite and the State: How Policy's Made in America. NY, 1990.

64Hartz L. The Liberal Tradition in America. An Interpretation of American Political Thought since the Revolution. NY, 1955.

65Huntington S. American Politics: the Promise of Disharmony. NY, 1981; Bibby J.F. Governing by Consent. Wash., 1995; Homes Г., Rae N. Governing America: History, Culture, Institutions, Organizations, Policy. Manchester and NY., 1996.

381

66Pairington V.L. Main Currents in American Thought. Vols 1-3. NY., 1927-1930.

67Ellis R.J. American Political Cultures. NY., 1993.

68Ibid. P. 42.

69Дай Т.Р., ЗиглерЛ.Х. Указ.соч. С. 111-112.

70Там же. С. 144-145.

71Political Issues in America Today/ Ed.P.J.Davies, F.A.Waldstein. Manchester, 1996. P. 102-104.

72Wayne S.J. The Road to the White House 1996. The Politics of Presidential Elections. NY., 1996. P. 11.

73Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. Wash., 1996. P. 287.

74Политические институты США: История и современность. М., 1988. С. 202.

75Wayne S.J. Op.cit. P. 65.

76Edsall Т. The New Politics of Inequality. NY., L., 1984.

77Perspectives on American Government. A Comprehensive Reader/ Ed.W.Lasser. Lexington, 1992. P. 197, 205.

78Ibid. P. 183.

79Teixeira R.A. The Disappearing American Voter. Wash., 1992. P. 96.

80Almond G.A., Verba S. The Civic Culture. Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. L., 1989. P. 338-339.

81A//?//?.AOp.cit. P. 120.

82Nie N., Verba S., Petrodk J.R. The Changing American Voter. Cambridge (Mass.), 1976; Дай ТР., ЗиглерЛ.Х. Указ.соч. С. 128-131.

83Wayne S.J. Op.cit. P. 70-71.

84Keith B.E., Magleby D.B., Nelson C.J., Orr F., Westlye S.J., Wolfinger R.E. The Myth of Independent Voter. Berkeley, 1992. P. 14; Wayne S.J. Op.cit. P. 73. Наиболее авторитетными источниками данных о партийных привязанностях американцев принято считать два: National Election Studies, Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research. Center for Political Studies, University of Michigan; General Social Surveys, National Opinion Research Center.

85Подсчитано по: Vital Statistics on American Politics/ Ed.H.W.Stanley, R.G.Niemi. Wash., 1992. P. 109.

86Подсчитано по: Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 105; Wayne S.J. Op.cit. P. 78-79.

87Form W.H. Divided We Stand. Working Class Stratification in America. Urbana, 1985. P. 212,215.

88Mayer W.G. Changes in Elections and the Party System: 1992 in Historical Perspective// The New American Politics. Reflections on Political Change and Clinton Administration/ Ed.B.D.Jones. Boulder etc., 1995. P. 40.

89Wayne S.J. Op.cit. P. 79.

382

90Mayer W.G. Op.cit. P. 38-39.

91Ibidem.

92Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 78.

93Dahl R.A. Op.cit. P. 241.

94Hrebenar RJ. Interest Group Politics in the United States. NY., L., 1997. P. 198; Statistical Abstract of the United States 1996. P. 198.

95Homes Г., Rae N. Governing America: History, Culture, Itstitutions, Organizations, Policy. Manchester and NY., 1996. P. 217.

96HrebenarRJ. Op.cit. P. 15-17.

97Дай Т.Р., ЗиглерЛ.Х. Указ.соч. С. 179.

98Политические институты США. С. 243.

99Там же.

100Grant A.R. The American Political Process. L, 1979. P. 163-170; Interest Group Politics/ EdAJ.Cigler, B.F.Loomis. Wash., 1991. P. 64-70; HrebenarRJ. Op.cit. P. 82-83; Homes T., Rae N. Op.cit. P. 207-221.

101Hrebenar R.J. Op.cit. P. 33-65.

102Grant A.R. Op.cit. P. 157-159.

103Baumgatner F.R., Jalbert J.C. Interest Groups and Political Change// The New American Politics/Ed.B.D.Jones. Boulder etc., 1995. P. 100.

104Hrebenar R.J. Op.cit. P. 4-6.

105The Clinton Presidency. First Appraisals/ Ed.C.Cambell, B.A.Rockman. Chatam (New Jersey), 1996. P. 215.

106Тема истории двухпартийной системы США является одной из наиболее изученных в отечественной американистике. В 1970-1980-е гг. оформилась целая отечественная школа в изучении истории политических партий США. О результатах ее деятельности см.: Маныкин А.С., Никонов В.А., Рогулев Ю.Н., Язьков Е.Ф. Некоторые итоги изучения истории двухпартийной системы США// Новая и новейшая история. 1988. № 2. При написании этой главы особое значение для меня имели труды А.С. Маныкина, А.А. Мишина, В.А. Никонова, В.О. Печатнова, Н.В. Сивачева, Е.Ф. Язькова.

107Rosenstone S.J. et al. Third Parties in America: Citizen Response to Major Party Failure. Princeton (New Jersey), 1984.

108Характеристику их позиций см.: Согрин В.В. Идеология в американской истории. От отцов-основателей до конца XX века. М., 1995. С. 195-219.

109History of U.S. Political Parties. Vols 1-4/ Ed.A.M.Schlesinger. jr. NY, 1973. Vol. 3. P. 1946.

110SeidlerM.B. Norman Thomas. Respectable Rebel. Syracuse, 1961. P. 313.

111Gillespie J.D. Politics at the Periphery: Third Parties in Two-Party America. Columbia (South Carolina), 1993. P. 122-127.

112Mayer W.G. Changes in Elections and the Party System: 1992 in Historical Perspective// The New American Politics. Reflections on Political Change and Clinton Administration/ Ed.B.D.Jones. Boulder etc., 1995. P. 32-35.

383

113Mayer W.G. The Devided Democrats. Ideological Unity, Party Reform and Presidential Elections. Boulder (Colorado), 1990. P. 83-85.

114Бьюэлл Э. Архаичны, но адаптивны. О политических партиях США (Сверяясь с классическими оценками)// Полис. 1996. №2. С. 99-100.

115Маныкин А.С., Никонов В.А., Рогулев Ю.Н., Язьков Е.Ф. Некоторые итоги изучения двухпартийной системы США. С. 22; Принципы функционирования двухпартийной системы США: история и современные тенденции. Ч. 1. М., 1988.С. 10.

116Key V.O.jr. A Theory of Critical Elections//Journal of Politics. 1955, February; Burnham W.D. Critical Elections and the Mainsprings of American Politics. NY, 1970.

117См. напр.: SundquistJ.L. Dynamics of Party System: Alignment and Realignment in the Unites States. Wash., 1973; Sartory G.A. Party and Party System: A Framework for Analysis. NY, 1976; Clubb J., Flannigan W., Zingale N. Partisan Realignment: Voters, Parties and Government in American History. Beverly Hills - L., 1990; Sinclair B. Congressional Realignment, 1925-1978. Austin, 1982; Asher H.A. Presidential Elections and American Politics: Voters, Candidates and Campaigns Since 1952. Pacific Grove, 1992; The American Party System: Stages of Development/ Ed.W.Chambers and W.D.Buniham. NY, 1975; The New American Politics. Reflections on Political Change and Clinton Administration/ Ed. B.D.Jones. Boulder etc., 1995; AldrichJ.H. Why Parties? The Origin and Transformation of Party Politics in America. Chicago, 1995.

118Принципы функционирования двухпартийной системы США. Ч. 1. С. 23; Галкин И.В., МаныкинА.С., Печатное В.О. Двухпартийная система в политической истории США// Вопросы истории. 1987. № 9. С. 63.

119The New American Politics. P. 23.

120Argersinger P.H. Structure, Process and Party. Essays on American Political History. NY, 1992. P. 14-18.

121Ibid. P. 14-18.

122The New American Politics. P. 24-39.

123History of U.S. Political Parties. Vol. 3. P. 1950-1951.

124Roosevelt F. Looking Forward. NY, 1933. P. 21, 35.

125История Демократической партии США в новейшее время обстоятельно разработана в отечественной американистике. Для меня особое значение имели труды А.С.Маныкина и В.О.Печатнова. См.: МаныкинА.С. История двухпартийной системы США (1789-1980). М., 1981; Он же. "Эра демократов": партийная перегруппировка в США 1933-1952. М., 1990; Печатное В.О. Демократическая партия США: избиратели и политика. М., 1980.

126History of U.S. Political Parties. Vol. 3. P. 1947.

127Ibid. P. 1948.

I28Nothing to Fear: The Selected Addresses of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. 1932-1945. Cambridge, 1946. P. 394, 424.

129State of Union Messages of the President. 1790-1966. Vols 1-3/ Ed.F.Israel. NY, 1967. Vol. 3. P. 2962.

384

130Ibid. P. 2979.

131HambyA.L Liberalism and Its Challenges: F.D.R. to Reagan. NY, 1985. P. 67.

132Bell D. The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties. NY, 1960.

135Liliental D. Big Business: a New Era. NY, 1953; Berle A. jr. The 20-th Century Capitalist Revolution. NY, 1954: Reisman D. The Lonely Crowd. NY, 1954; Lerner M. America as a Civilization. NY, 1957.

134Galbraith J.K. American Capitalism: the Concept of Countervailing Power. Boston, 1952. P. 7, 51, 57, 111-112, 139, 149.

135Stevenson A. What 1 Think. NY, 1956. P. 3, 4, 10-11, 13, 22-23, 36, 73, 85, 96.

136Ibid. P. 3-4.

137Klinkner P.A. The Losing Parties. Out-Party National Committees. 1956-1993. New Haven, London, 1994. P. 33-37.

138МаныкинА.С. История двухпартийной системы США. С. 232-234.

139Stevenson A. The New America. L, 1957. P. 90-94, 257.

140Harris S.E. The Economics of Political Parties. NY, 1962. P. XXXIV, 19,44-45, 101-102, 110.

141National Party Platforms. 1840-1968/ Ed.K.H.Porter, D.B.Johnson. Urbana, L., 1968. P. 582-589; Kennedy J.F. The Burden and the Glory. NY, 1964. P. 4-5, 9, 26, 37, 176, 183,185.

142Johnson L.B. My Hope for America. NY, 1964. P. 23, 51; Idem. The Vantage Point: Perspectives of the Presidency. 1963-1969. NY, 1973. P. 69-72, 87, 103.

143McCarthy E.J. The Hard Years: a Look at Contemporary America and American Institutions. NY, 1975. P. 61-67.

144Schlesinger A.M.jr. The Imperial Presidency. Boston, 1973.

145Маныкин А.С. История двухпартийной системы США. С. 254.

146Klinkner P.A. Op.cit. P. 106.

147Цит. по: Бобраков Ю.И. О посланиях президента Конгрессу// США: экономика, политика, идеология. 1978. №4. С. 49.

148Hart G. A New Democracy: A Democratic Vision for the 1980-s and Beyond. NY, 1983. P. 8, 10-15, 28-29.

149Reich R.B. The Next American Frontier. NY, 1983. P. 5.

150Hart G. Op.cit. P. 114.

151Rotenberg R. The Neoliberals: Creating the New American Politics. NY, 1984. P. 87.

152McElvaine R.S. The End of the Conservative Era: Liberalism after Reagan. NY, 1987. P. 99.

153Демократическая партия США в 80-е годы: поиски альтернатив. М., 1988. С. 54-55.

154Clinton W.J. Between Hope and History. Meeting America's Challenge for the 21-th Century. NY, 1996.

155Teixeira R.A. Intellectual Challenges Facing the Democratic Party//The Politics of Ideas. Intellectual Challenges to the Party after 1992/ Ed.J.K.White, J.K.Green. Lanham(Md.), 1995. P. 53.

385

156National Party Platforms. P. 339-341.

157Ibid. P. 366-367.

158Всесторонний анализ эволюции Республиканской партии в 30-40-е годы см. в монографиях А.С.Маныкина.

159Основные труды: Viereck P. Conservatism from John Adams to Churchill. Princeton, 1956; Idem. Conservatism Revisited. NY, L., 1962 (1-st ed. 1946); Kirk R.A. The Conservative Mind: From Burke to Cantayana. Chicago, 1953; Idem. A Program for Conservatism. Chicago, 1954; Idem. The Root of American Order. La Salle, 1975; Rossiter C. Conservatism in America. NY., 1955; Idem. Parties and Politics in America. Ithaca, 1960.

160Rossiter C. Conservatism in America. P. 13, 15, 28-29.

161 Rossiter C. Conservatism in America. P. 112-114; Kirk R.A. A Program for Conservatism. P. 258.

162History of U.S. Political Parties. Vol. 4. P. 2991.

163См.: The State of the Union Messages of the President/ Ed.F.Israel. NY, 1967. Vol. 3. P. 3020-3022; History of American Presidential Elections. 1789-1968. Vols 1-4/ Ed.A.Schlesinger. jr. NY, 1971. Vol. 4. P. 3443.

164Larson A. Republican Looks at his Party. NY, 1956. P. 117, 131, 147.

165Маныкин А.С. История двухпартийной системы США. С. 221.

166History of U.S. Political Parties. Vol. 4. P. 2995.

167KlinknerRA. Op.cit. P. 42.

168Никонов В.А. От Эйзенхауэра к Никсону. Из истории республиканской партии США. М., 1984. С. 81-84.

169GoldwaterB. The Conscience of a Conservative. NY, 1960. P. 15, 151; History of American Presidential Elections. Vol. 4. P. 3569, 3571, 3675.

170Donovan F.R. The Americanism of Barry Goldwater. NY, 1964. P. 36, 128, 137-149.

171White T. The Making of the President 1972. NY, 1973. P. 69.

172См.: Мелвиль А.Ю. Социальная философия современного американского консерватизма. М., 1980.

173Steinfels P. Neoconservatives: the Men Who Are Changing American Politics. NY, 1979. P. 10-15.

174Lowi T.J. The End of Liberalism: The Second Republic of the United States. NY, L., 1979. P. 193-220; Evans M.S. Clear and Present Dangers: a Conservative View of America's Government. NY, 1975. P. 151, 191-201, 209, 221, 393-405; Huntington S.P. American Politics: the Promise of Disharmony. Cambridge (Mass.), L., 1981. P. 10-12, 14.

175ransforming Our World: a Call to Action/ Ed.J.M.Boice. Portland (Ore.), 1988. P. 134.

176Ronald Reagan's Weekly Radio Addresses: The President Speaks to America/Сотр.F.L.Israel. Wilmington (Del.), 1987. Vol. 1. P. I, 9-10, 22-24, 85, 90-91. 98-99,102,117.

386

177Stockman D. The Triumph of Politics. NY., 1987. P. 10.

178Подробный анализ внутренней политики Р.Рейгана см.: Олещук Ю.Ф. Эволюция социальной политики США в 60-80-е годы. М., 1987; Заиченко А.С. Доходы и потребление: американская семья среднего достатка// США: экономика, политика, идеология. 1987. №12;' Он же. Доходы и потребление: богатые и сверхбогатые// Там же. 1988. №8; Шмелев Н.П., Волков Н.В., Парканский А.Б. Американская экономика в преддверии 90-х// Там же. №10; Никонов В.А. Рональд Рейган// Вопросы истории. 1989. №2; и др.

179Reichley A.J. Republican Ideology and the American Future// The Politics of Ideas. Intellectual Challenges to the Party After 1992/ Ed.J.K.White, J.K.Green. Lanham (Md), 1995. P. 82-83; Mayer W.G. Changes in Elections and the Party System//The New American Politics/ Ed.B.D.Jones. Boulder ets., 1995. P. 19-50.

180Конституция США: история и современность. М., 1988. С. 189.

181Цит. по: Мишин А.А. Принцип разделения властей в конституционном механизме США. М., 1984. С. 34.

182The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D.Roosevelt. Vols 1-13/ Ed.Samuel L.Rosenman. NY., 1938-1950. Vbl. 2. P. 14-15.

183SchlesingerA.M.jr. The Imperial Presidency. Boston, 1973.

184Homes Т., Rae N. Governing America: History, Culture, Instututions, Organizations, Policy. Manchester and NY., 19%. P. 72.

185Мишин А.А. Государственное право США. М., 1976; Он же. Принцип разделения властей в конституционном механизме США. М, 1984; Политические институты США. История и современность. М, 1988.

186Murphy P.L. The Constitution in Crisis Time. 1918-1969. NY., 1972.

187Vital Statistics on American Politics. P.276-277; Homes Т., Rae N. Op.cit. P. 78-79.

188Мишин А.А. Государственное право США. С. 175.

189Dahl R.A. Democracy in the United States. Promise and Performance. Boston, 1981. P. 94.

190Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 278.

191Ibid. P. 291.

192Мишин А.А. Принцип разделения властей в конституционном механизме США. С. 66-67.

193 McDonalds F. The American Presidency. An Intellectual History. Lawrence (Kansas), 1994. P. 365.

194Spitzer R.J. President and Congress. Executive Hegemony and the Crossroads of American Government. Phila., 1993. P. 51.

195Wayne S.J. The Legislative Presidency. NY., 1978; Hart J.The Presidential Branch. Elmsford (N.Y.), 1987.

196Davis J.W. The American Presidency. Westport (Conn.), L., 1995. P. 31.

387

197Milkis S.M., Nelson M. The American Presidency. Origins and Development. 1776-1993. Wash., 1994. P. 320-321.

198Daht R.A. Op.cit. P. 88; Nathan R.P. The Administrative Presidency. NY, 1983.

199Мишин А.А. Принцип разделения властей в конституционном механизме США. С. 115.

200Подробнее см.: Самуилов С.М. Президентские кризисы: общее и особенное// США. Экономика. Политика. Идеология. 1989. № 4. С. 24-27.

201Ronald Reagan's America/ Ed.E.J.Schmertz, N.Datlof, A.Ugrinsky. Vol. 1. Westport (Conn.), 1997. P. 341-343; Davis J.W. Op.cit. P. 168-171, 310-311; Milkis S.M., Nelson M. Op.cit. P. 366-369.

202Foley M., Owens J.E. Congress and the Presidency. Institutional Politics in a Separated System. Manchester and NY, 1996. P. 269-270.

203Researching the Presidency. Vital Questions. New Approaches/ Ed.G.C.Edwards, J.H.Kessel, B.A.Rockman. Pittsburgh and L, 1993. P. 297-299.

204Ibid. P. 315-317.

205Davis J. W. Op.cit. P. 7.

206Ibid. P. 130.

207Rivals for Power. Presidential - Congressional Relations/ Ed.J.A.Thurber. Wash., 1996. P. 8-9.

208Дай Т.Р., Зиглер Л.Х. Демократия для элиты. М., 1984. С. 198.

209Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 272-273.

210The Constitution and American Political Development. An Institutional Perspective/ Ed.P.F.Nardulli. Urbana - Chicago, 1992. P. 132-135.

211Теория государства и права/ Под ред.М.Н.Марченко. М., 1996. С. 126-128.

212Meier K.J. Politics and Bureaucracy. Policy Making in the Fourth Branch of Government. Pacific Grove (California), 1993.

213Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 218-219.

214The American Experiment. Essays on the Theory and Practice of Liberty/ Ed.P.A.Lawler, R.M.Schaefer. Lanham (Md.), 1994. P. 173-175.

215Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 200-201.

216Congress Reconcidered/ Ed.L.C.Dodd. Wash., 1993. P. 36-37.

217Дом T.P., Зиглер Л.Х. Указ. соч. С. 245.

218Сахаров Н.А. Конгресс США: практика парламентаризма// США. Экономика. Политика. Идеология. 1989. № 9. С. 17.

219Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 212. 220Ibid. P. 214.

221Congress Reconcidered. P. 16-17.

222Foley M., Owens J.E. Op.cit. P. 137-141.

223Ibid. P. 136.

224Rivals for Power. Presidential - Congressional Relations. P. 31.

225Ibid. P.38-39.

388

226Политические институты США. История и современность. С. 63.

227Там же. С. 49-53.

228Мишин А.А. Принцип разделения властей в конституционном механизме США. С. 71-75.

229Jones G.S., Martini J.A. The Imperial Congress. Crisis in the Separation of Powers. NY, 1988. P. 7-13, 295-297.

230Политические институты США. История и современность. С. 120-131.

231См. напр.: McCloskey R. The American Supreme Court. Chicago, 1960. P. 20;

Grant A.R. The American Political Process. L, 1979. P. 139.

232Spaeth H. Supreme Court Policy Making: Explanation and Prediction. San Fran-sisco, 1979. P. 33. Цит.по: Политические институты США. С. 125.

233The Constitution and American Political Development. An Institutional Perspective/ Ed.P.F.Nardulli. Urbana - Chicago, 1992. P. 150.

234DahlRA. Op.cit. P. 160-163.

235Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 306.

236Цит. по: Davis J. W. Op.cit. P. 334.

237Ibid. P. 342.

238Политические институты США. История и современность. С. 141.

239Vital Statistics on American Politics. P. 290-291.

240Конституция США: история и современность. С. 172.

241Там же. С. 175.

242Кейнс Э. Верховный суд США: арбитр конституционных конфликтов// США. Экономика. Политика. Идеология. 1991. № 6. С. 37-39.

243Конституция США: история и современность. С. 221.

244Reagan Legacy. Promise and Perfomance. Chatam (New Jersey), 1988. P. 87.

245Ibid. P. 88-89; Homes Г., Rae N. Op.cit. P. 128-130.

246Political Issues in America Today: the 1990-s Revisited/ Ed.P.J.Davies, FAWaldstein. Manchester, 1996. P. 166.

389



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