Lessons 7, 8, 9

[ - ാ: - з]1

Avoid mixing the vowels. Do not make [ാ:] and [з] similar by dropping the glide and making the nucleus [з] like [ാ:]: though both are mid-open, [ാ:]: is a very back vowel, while [з] is a mixed (centralized) vowel. Take care not to diphthongize [ാ:]:.

Do not mix up Vowel No 7 [ാ:]: and No 6 [a]. Though both are back vowels, Vowel No 6 is much more open than No 7.

The vowel [ാ:]: is never checked even in its shortest length variant like in 'short'.

1. Read the words and the sentences:

A. on - all - oh
novel - Paul - sofa doctor - door - don't
hypocrisy - reformer - social often - order - only

B. 1. Oh no, she's not tall. 2. We know Maugham, the short story writer, was the son of a diplomat. 3. In his novels and stories Maugham did not denounce the social order. 4. Her blouse was worn and old. Her face was short, her upper lip short, showing her teeth, her lashes long and dark. .


Do not replace the nucleus of the diphthong by the Russian [O]: make it much more open than [O]: and long. Make the glide short and weak like a weak [e]. Do not stress it.

2. Read the words and the sentences:

A. boy toil pointless
  noise point voice

B. 1. That's his point of view. 2. The young man heard little boys' voices and then another voice crisp and soft. 3. The boy turned out to be a lady with a low voice.



Distinguish the Clear [l] and the Dark []. The Clear [l] is a bit palatal but do not make it as palatal as the Russian palatal [Л’] like in "Лиза". Mind that in English the Clear [l] should sound before any vowel: front, mixed or central and back, whereas in Russian the palatal [Л’] is found only before front and central vowels. So in the word 'look' [l] is palatal (clear) and in the Russian word "лук" [Л] should.be hard (твердое). But before [j], when preceded by a front vowel, [l] should be very palatal: will you [wıl ju·]. (Cp. fool you [fu: ju:].) The Dark [] should sound at the end of a word and before a consonant. The Dark [] is used despite the following [j] because [l] is preceded by [u:], a back vowel.

3. Read the words and the sentences:

A. leave intelligent look deal
  lady clasping lot original

B. 1. Only a lady upstairs, lieutenant, calling me. 2. Lady! It's him I tell you! 3. "Life is a difficult business. Leave me to deal with him," she said clasping her hands. 4. You will protect me, general, will you not?


Avoid making [d] strong: it should be a weak consonant. To make it weak do not press the tongue to the teeth ridge too hard using only the very tip of the tongue. Do not aspirate it before a vowel. In the word final position devoice the very end of the consonant but do not make its voiceless part strong or aspirated. Let the voiced part of the final [d] Ьз much longer than its final voiceless part. Do not devoice the final [d] completely like we do in Russian, Do not make the final [d] fully voiced and strong with the addition of an unnecessary vowel [ə].

4. Read the words and the sentences:

A. down lady confidence had
  dared wonder bed mind

B. 1. You can't have the cat in bed, Dick. Didn't daddy tell you yesterday? 2. It's a dangerous thing to order the lives of others so I've always hesitated to give advice. 3. Nobody else can do it as you do. You are not afraid of your own destiny. I wish I had your courage.

[z, v] in the Word Final Position

Neither devoice the final [z, v] completely nor make them fully voiced. Devoice only the very end of the consonants .and let the devoiced part sound weak.

5. Read the words and the sentences:

A. has flings leave
  advise have Steve


В. 1. I have got your dispatches. 2. Leave them alone. You can only guess at the emotions of our neighbours. 3. He forces upon his fellows measures that must alter their manners.

Assimilation According to the Place of Obstruction

Mind that when an alveolar consonant is followed by the interdental [θ, ð] it becomes dental.

6. Read the sentences:

1. What was that? - What then? 2. Is that a reasonable demand? 3. Character in the chin. 4. They are there in the bosom. 5. The fact that you know Spain is very important forme. 6. She didn't let the boys stay in the kitchen. 7. The discovery that there was Celtic blood about this family has excited one who believed that he was a Celt himself.

Loss of Plosion

Mind that when a plosive consonant is immediately followed by noise consonants (both fricative and plosive, voiceless and voiced) it loses plosion. In case of two plosives running (whether within a word or at the junction of words) the first loses plosion, the second does not.

Remember that when a plosive consonant is immediately followed by the sonorant (n] or [1] it loses plosion but makes [n] and [l] plosive (we call it 'nasal plosion' and 'lateral plosion'). Sometimes in spelling there are some letters between those representing the plosive and the sonorant but they are not pronounced like in 'modern'.

7. Read the words and the sentences:

A. Robert Garton let down subtle
  currant bushes sudden gentleman

B. 1. She wants awakening. 2. Do you threaten women? 3. Only a lady, lieutenant, calling me. 4. It heightened their interest. 5. Isn't it reasonable? 6. I begged him to sit down. 7. It gave him confidence.


1 See[з], p. 245.

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