EXERCISES TO THE TEXT

I. a) Listen to the recording of Text One and mark the stresses and tunes, b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

II. Spell and transcribe the following words:

doctrinaire, inauguration, electrician, electrify, electrification, industrialism, realisation, commune, Communism, Evolutionary Collec-tivist, campaign, capitalist, proletarian dictatorship, reconstruction, unteachable, incurably, predatory, exploit (v, n), exploitation

III. Put fifteen questions to the text.

IV. Copy out from Text One the sentences containing the word combinations and phrases given on p. 14 and translate them into Russian in writing.

V. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and phrases:

1. The workers of Russia rose in 1917 to destroy capitalism. 2. The overthrow of capitalism in Russia was the beginning of a new stage in the social and economic development in our country. 3. Marx and Engels constantly repeated that "the democratic republic is the nearest approach to the dictatorship of the proletariat". 4. The Soviet Union is rich in national supplies of raw materials. 5. The crisis affected even advanced industrial centres. 6. He has his own perception of the world. 7. The results dfdn't seem encouraging but he persisted in applying different methods. 8. This was an area of dense population. 9. It was a class war that could hardly be avoided. 10. It was in the Gallery off Cork Street that Fleur happened to meet Jon. 11. From one angle I like the story, from another angle I find it difficult for translation. 12. He was busy with doing sums. 13. Is this method of teaching, suitable for this objective? 14. There has never been any similarity in their outlooks.

VI. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combinations and phrases given on p. 14.

1. В 1917 году пролетариат России сверг капитализм. 2. Революция должна уметь бороться с контрреволюционными силами и быть готовой к неизбежной классовой борьбе. 3. Советские люди заняты созидательным трудом на благо своего государства. 4. Проблемы сотрудничества становятся особенно важными для густонаселенных индустриальных районов Европы. 5. Долг высокоразвитых стран помorать развивающимся странам. 6. При коммунизме будет уничтожено основное различие между городом и деревней. 7. Парижская Коммуна явилась первым опытом диктатуры пролетариата. 8. В результате свержения капитализма появилось первое в мире социалистическое государство. 9. При посещении музея мы встретились с интересным экскурсоводом. 10. С одной стороны, мне очень хотелось присутствовать на лекции, с другой стороны, я понимала, что опоздаю на занятия. 11. Он испытывал метод за методом, чтобы увидеть, какой из них лучше всего отвечает его цели. 12. Была создана целая комиссия для того, чтобы выяснить, как лучше сохранить и использовать природные ресурсы страны.

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VII. Use as many of the word combination from the list as you can in one situation.

VIII. Use the word combinations in a dialogue (to be done in pairs).

IX. Explain what is meant by:

1. I was curious to see ... . 2. I found nothing of the sort. 3. to be keen on the subject .4. to be threaded throughout. 5. These motifs interwove, reacted on each other ... . 6. His frankness must ... leave his disciples breathless ... . 7. no technical skill available 8. an altogether greater strain 9. to be enormously creative 10. ... a world changed over and planned and built afresh 11. a sustained educational campaign 12. a prelude to reconstruction 13. wasteful and unteachable 14. an uphill argument

X. Answer the'following questions or do the given tasks;

1. What was Wells' chief purpose in going from Petersburg to Moscow? 2. Why was Wells disposed to be hostile? 3. What two motifs was their talk threaded throughout and held together by? 4. What do you know of the "Utopia" and "Utopians"? 5. Why did Wells- think of the electrification of Russia as a Utopia? 6. What did Wells fail to see? 7. What did Wells realize after talking with V. I. Lenin? 8. What did their essential difference consist in? 9. Who is an Evolutionary Collectivist? 10. What did Wells suggest instead of the class war? 11. What is necessary if the capitalist system is to be overthrown? 12. How did V. I. Lenin characterize modern capitalism? 13. What stage of capitalism did V.I. Lenin describe as incurably predatory, wasteful and unteachable? 14. Why did Wells have an uphill argument? 15. Into how many logical parts can the text be divided? What is the author's method of logical argumentation? 16. What does the author employ to make the text emotional? Find in the text sentences with direct speech, change them into indirect speech, say what they lack now. 17. Comment on the structure of the sentences. What does the author achieve by making them complex? 18. Find in the text parallel constructions. What do they help to express? 19. Point out instances of lexical repetition. Comment on their role.

XI. Retell Text One close to the text.

XII. Give a summary of Text One. (Bear in mind that a summary is a concise orderly retelling of the contents of a passage or a text and is ordinarily about one-third or one-fourth as long as the original.)

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Study the vocabulary notes and translate the illustrative examples into Russian.

II. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the words and word combinations in italics:

A. 1. The troubles were preceded by a variety of those awful warnings which forerun great and public calamities. 2. He blinked his lights to warn the driver ahead that he was passing. 3. In that room he and Bosinney had talked one summer afternoon ... and now he wondered what sort of woman it was he was warning him against. And now! He was almost in a want of a warning himself. 4. Capitalist countries were most

16

hostile to the young Soviet State. 5. The hostility of the citizens to the dictator was the main reason for the riot. 6. They gained vast accessions of territory by easily-provoked hostilities. 7. The United Kingdom is a unitary state, not federal. 8. He comes from one of the Western States. 9. This is a fine state of affairs! 10. The scanty anecdotes furnish us with nearer glimpses of human nature, and show what man is in a comparatively primitive state, and what he owes to civilization. 11. The school building is in bad state of repair. 12. She stated that she had been robbed. 13. His fair and objective statement of the situation was welcomed. 14. The Soviet Union pursues the policy of peaceful coexistence of states with different social systems. 15. The victory of the Russian Socialist revolution brought the unification of the socialist movement in the Communist Party in Britain. 16. Such a sociable young man is a wonderful asset at any gathering. 17. Her debute was the biggest social event of the season. 18. Mrs. Bennet is a social person who usually entertains once a week.

B. 1. The members of the delegation discussed the common interests that unite our two countries. 2. The representative of the World Council of Peace called for the united actions in the struggle for peace. 3. Are you a union member? 4. A strong political party was Termed by the union of several small groups. 5. Under these conditions oxygen will unite with this element. 6. He tried to analyze the reasons why Britain, once the leading world industrial power, should have fallen behind in the race with a new capitalist power like United States. 7. After the overthrow of Turkish rule in Bulgaria by the Russian Army in 1878, the great powers handed Macedonia and the Adrianople region back to Turkey. 8. He delivered a powerful speech. 9. Power station is a building where electric power is generated for distribution. 10. The New Economic Policy had just been adopted and the times were serious. 11. To gain full independence the young sovereign states must develop their national economy. 12. After the First World War the national economy of Russia was dislocated. 13. The scientist left usarich heritage in economic and political science. 14. During the drought, citizens were asked to be economical in their use of water. 15. Economize on whatever you want, but not on food. 16. American slavery was as Karl Marx stated "a commercial system of exploitation". 17. The fighter pilot got the highest military orders for his exploits. 18. The war that actually broke out was but a war of detail, a mere succession of casual exploits and unconnected enterprises. 19. He loved to recount his endless exploits.

III. Paraphrase the following sentences using your active vocabulary:

1. He was informed of the consequences in advance: 2. Let this accident teach you to be careful in future. 3. The man spoke of possible danger. 4. On seeing the stranger a disorderly crowd gathered in the yard. 5. They stopped fighting as unexpectedly as they began it. 6. There was that moment between antagonism and acceptance, and then he said: "Make yourself at home." 7. Why are you in such a mess? 8. Don't get excited. 9. The USSR is the first socialist country in the world.

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10. The house wants repairing. 11. He was the person who took an important part in the management of state affairs. 12. He took no interest in people apart from their position in the society. 13. She was eager to spend an evening in the company of her friends. 14. The new student turned out to be very friendly and companionable. 15. He was an expert in science that deals with human society. 16. J. B. Priestley achieved his characteristic vision with "The Good Companions" which deals with the people getting together to fight for their way of life. 17. I'm unable to help you. 18. The Soviet Union appealed to all big states to cut military expenditures. 19. They say his wife is very careful in spending money. 20. This stove does not waste fuel. 21. David was so thrifty that he managed to save fifty dollars a month out of his meager salary. 22. Along the Angara river there is a wealth of natural resources, until now scarcely touched. 23. We've heard enough of your heroic deeds.

IV. Explain or comment on the following phrases.

A. 1. You should take warning from what happened to me. 2. The sign was a warning to trespassers. 3. She warned him about eating too much candy. 4. And then foghorns began their warnings. 5. Ma fanned and fanned the air and her piece of cardboard warned off the flies. 6. He worked himself into a state. 7, Things were in an untidy state. 8. I have been in such a state of mind about you ever since last Thursday. 9. What is his state in life? 10. The stated facts conflict with what actually happened. 11. He is only stating his own opinion. 12. She realised that the old life was gone and done with. It was impossible to keep up our social pretences any longer. 13. They were near the village where the novelist lived with his family, and there was much socializing; they played croquet and they rode in the countryside. 14. Are you acquainted with him professionally or socially? 15. The capitalist powers despite their hostility towards the Soviet Union were compelled to make contacts with it. 16. By all means let us concentrate all our efforts on' bringing about an immediate end to hostilities. 17. This was a signal for open hostilities. 18. He was doomed soon to incur their hostility.

B. 1. The angry union leaders made clear one after another that their members would be joining the two unions already involved in industrial action. 2. I judged, rightly, that in their awkward situation their close union was their main comfort and that this union had no weak spot. 3. Long friendship united the two families. 4. They presented a united front to the enemy. 5. In union, is strength (proverb). 6. "If I had power I would sink the sea beneath the earth, rather than the good ship should be destroyed," said Miranda. 7. He was willing to challenge the society whose power he fully recognised. 8. The chameleon has the power of changing the colour. 9. The Indian fakir demonstrated the power of the mind over the body. 10. He referred to the particular social and economic ills brought upon the country. 11. We can economize on groceries this week. 12. He is an author who draws his characters with an economy of details. 13. To listen to him was to combine the excitement of going out with the economy of staying at home. 14. Richard looked embarrassed; I knew

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he was thinking of the job, and trying not to seem to be exploiting his attachment to Sonia. 15. She has merely interrupted their work, exploited their energy and attention. 16. He loved to recount his endless exploits.

V. Give the English equivalents for:

предупредить кого-л. об опасности; предостерегать от чего-л.; без предупреждения; вражеские силы; враждебный взгляд; чувство враждебности; проявлять враждебность к кому-л.; начать (прекратить) военные действия; душевное состояние; состояние здоровья; в беспорядке; взвинтить себя; создавать государство; Государственный Департамент США; изложить дело; опубликовать заявление; официальный отчет; государственный деятель; социальное обеспечение; социальное страхование; общественная работа; общественный деятель; светская жизнь; общительный человек; следовать по пути социализма; социалистическое соревнование; мир социализма; дружная семья; совместные действия; общие усилия; профессиональный союз; британский флаг; атомная энергия; электростанция; машина в шестьдесят лошадиных сил; прийти к власти; захватить власть; великие державы; массированный удар; яркая речь; экономная хозяйка; экономический потенциал страны; экономическая политика; экономическая помощь; СЭВ; Европейское Экономическое Сообщество; экономическая география; народное хозяйство; подвиг; разрабатывать природные ресурсы; эксплуатация человека человеком

VI. Translate the following sentences into English:

A. 1. Я предостерегал вас, чтобы вы не обсуждали свои дела с посторонними людьми. 2. Меня предупредили, что дорога будет опасная. 3. Стриклэнд покинул семью без предупреждения, оставив жену в ужасном состоянии. 4. Несмотря на враждебность некоторых кругов в капиталистических странах, социалистические страны и все прогрессивное человечество добились разрядки в международных отношениях. 5. Вражеские войска отступили без боя. 6. Ее враждебный взгляд послужил для меня своего рода предупреждением. 7. Советский Союз с саMorо начала оказывал помощь народу ГДР в построении первого социалистического государства на немецкой земле. 8. Его заявление было опубликовано на следующий день. 9. Не взвинчивай себя, смотри на вещи проще. 10. Меня беспокоит состояние его здоровья. 11. Рабочие приняли активное участие в социалистическом соревновании. 12. Он был известным общественным деятелем, который сделал многое для развития народного хозяйства страны. 13. Кристин жила в стороне от светской жизни.

Б. 1. Всемирный Совет Мира призвал все страны объединить силы в борьбе за мир. 2. На стене висел лозунг "Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!". 3. Профессиональные союзы в капиталистических странах защищают интересы рабочих. 4. На конгрессе присутствовал Генеральный секретарь Организации Объединенных Наций. 5. В процессе социалистического развития постоянно крепнет союз науки и

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труда. 6. В результате победы Великой Октябрьской социалистической революции в России к власти пришли рабочие и крестьяне. 7. Незадолго до окончания Великой Отечественной войны главы великих держав собрались на конференции в Ялте. 8. Меня поразило его заявление. 9. Союз Экономической Взаимопомощи был основан в 1949 году. 10. Накануне революции большинство социал-демократов считало, что пролетарская революция должна начаться в наиболее экономически развитых государствах. 11. Капитализм - это общественно-экономическая формация, основанная на эксплуатации человека человеком. 12. Освоение новых железорудных месторождений будет способствовать укреплению экономического потенциала развивающихся африканских стран.

VII. Use the following words and word combinations in situations:

  1. to warn smb. of smth.; to show hostility to smb.; to get in a state; on the one hand ... on the other hand
  2. social evening; hostile look; economical person; to state; to be a warning to smb.
  3. to destroy capitalism; to come to power; to show hostility towards smb., a statesman
  4. to open hostilities; to warn smb. against smth., to issue a statement
  5. to exploit national resources; to do everything in one's power; economic independence

VIII. Render the text in English:

ДИНАМИКА НАШЕГО РОСТА

Новый общественный строй, высвободив гигантскую созидательную энергию трудящихся масс, в исторически короткий срок преобразил нашу Родину. Она стала первой в мире страной развитого социализма, Moгучей державой с передовой экономикой, наукой и культурой. Хотя два десятилетия из шести враги вынуждали советский народ с оружием в руках защищать свою свободу и независимость, восстанавливать разрушенное войной хозяйство, наш национальный доход 1 по сравнению с дореволюционным уровнем вырос в 65 раз. За последние десять лет, которые отличаются особенно крупными масштабами; комплексностью развития народного хозяйства, экономический потенциал СССР практически удвоился.

Вспомним, с чего мы начинали. Царская Россия оставила в наследство освобожденному революцией народу низкий уровень производительных сил 2, голод и разруху. "Россия во мгле",- не случайно говорили о нашей стране в те годы. Буржуазные экономисты на все лады твердили, что из этой мглы ее не вывести еще века. Нужна была мудрая прозорливость В.И. Ленина, глубокая вера партии в творческие силы масс, строго научная программа созидания нового общества,

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чтобы, спрессовав время, за десятилетия проделать путь, равный столетиям.

"Кремлевским мечтателем" назвал английский писатель-фантаст Ленина. Да, мы - мечтатели! Но не беспочвенные фантазеры, а люди, которые умеют предвидеть будущее и упорно трудиться ради намеченной цели. Владимир Ильич мечтал о ста тысячах тракторов, а сейчас только за девятую пятилетку их пришло на поля один миллион 700 тысяч. Он говорил на заре Советской власти о ликвидации неграмотности. Теперь у нас учатся десятки миллионов. Советский человек - труженик и мечтатель, патриот и интернационалист - доказал, что умеет возводить города и заводы, выращивать высокие урожаи, штурмовать космос, управлять великой страной! Все это стало возможным потому, что нас вел и ведет боевой авангард народа - партия коммунистов.

("Правда", 1977 г.)

IX. a) Give Russian equivalents for the following English proverb and sayings (or translate them into Russian), b) Explain in English the meaning of the proverb and sayings, c) Make up a dialogue to illustrate the proverb and sayings:

1. United we stand, divided we fall. 2. Something is rotten in the state of Denmark. 3. More power to your elbow!

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1 national income
2 productive forces


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