[∧ - a:]
Mind that Vowel No 10 [∧] is a central open vowel (the narrow variant), a bit less open than the Russian [A] (which is also a central vowel). Ma^e it checked in its shorter variant.
Remember that Vowel No 5 [a:] is a back-advanced open vowel (the broad variant). But it is not advisable to open the mouth too wide while articulating it.
The vowel [a] is the best in quality when pronounced on a low pitch.
Mind that it is never checked even in its shortest length variant like in 'ask'.
1. Read the pairs of words and the sentences:
||hut - heart
||grunt - grant
||much - March
||lust - last
||nuts - nard
||‵utter - ‵after
B. 1. "Art for Heart's Sake" is a funny story. 2. Margie's grandfather once said the funny thing to her father. 3. The abruptness of his answer proved too much for his aunt's heart. 4. He'd done some constructive thinking since his uncle's last visit.
Mind that the nucleus of the diphthong isamixed (centralized) vowel. So do not make it a back vowel like the Russian [О]. It is a mid vowel. So do not make it an open vowel like the Russian [A]. The glide is Vowel No 8 . It should be extremely short but distinct. The nucleus should be several times as long as the glide.
2. Read the words and the sentences:
B. 1. So the following 1 week he noticed that the old man's interest was growing. 2. I've slowed it up and I hope the over-all pattern of her progress is quite satisfactory. 3. Margie hopes he won't know how to put it together. It won't be so very bad.
[aı - aıə]
Take care to make the nucleus a frоnt-retracted open vowel. Make the nucleus long, much longer than the glide. Do not replace it by Vowel No 5 [a:], which is an open back-advanced vowel. Pronounce the glide indistinctly, like a weak [e], in fact, and make it very short. Do not stress it.
When proriouncing the combination [aı] + [ə] make the nucleus the strongest element and the glide the weakest one, weaker than the vowel [ə].
3. Read the pairs of Words and the sentences:
||white - wire
||‵Friday - ‵prior
||to ‵tie - en‵tirely
||writer - ‵riot
||while - ‵violent
||eyes - ‵Irish
B. 1. "It's an entirely new idea," said the writer. 2. "It's not quite her fault," he said quietly, in a tired tone. 3. The old man was prior in buying the things.
[a - aıə]
About the nucleus of the diphthong see the instructions given in Ex. -3: it is almost the same as in the diphthong [aı]. Pronounce the glide indistinctly, like a weak [o], and make it very short. Do not stress it.
When pronouncing the combination [a] + [ə] make the nucleus the strongest element and the glide the weakest one, weaker than the vowel [ə]. Do not insert the unnecessary [w] between the glide and [ə]. To avoid [w] do not let the upper and the lower lips be brought together.
4. Read the pairs of words and the sentences:
||how - our
||town - ‵tower
||‵thousand - ‵shower
||now - ‵town
||south - ‵sour
||round - ‵rowan
В. 1. In the south milk quickly gets sour. 2. How I detest that school of ours! 3. Thousand of our people have seen the tower in the south. 4. Now, what about taking a shower? - Yes. Let me fetch our towel.
Let the second element follow the first immediately to prevent you from the mistake of detaching the first element from the second. Strain the muscles of the tongue.
Mind that both affricates are always articulated with a front secondary focus; that is they are somewhat palatal in any position in the word: at the beginning, in the middle and at the end. But do not raise the middle of the tongue too high so as not to replace it by the Russian [Ч]. When the Russian [Ч] is quickly followed by the Russian voiced consonants [Б, Д, Г, 3, Ж] something similar to the English [dჳ] sounds: "дочь больна, с плеч долой, ключ забыл".
5. Read the words and the sentences:
B. 1. Just fool around with chalk. 2. Gee, Margie seems to have a chill. 3. The teacher of geography just turned the pages of the picture book.
[w - v]
Mind that [w] is bilabial: it is articulated with both lips. The lips should first be pursed as if ready for a whistle and then quickly spread. Do not start the consonant too early. Otherwise [У] will sound before [w].
The consonant [v] should be articulated only with the lower lip and the upper teeth: it is labio-dental.
6. Read the pairs of words and the sentences. Do not mix up the consonants:
||was - vase
||word - verb
||‵window - ‵vigorous
||went - vent
||weak - Vic
||a‵warded - a‵verted
B. 1. She was eleven but she understood it was a very old book. 2. It was very funny that instead of moving the way they were supposed to they stood quite still. 3. Elsworth wanted to show him how very hard and how very well he was working. 4. As the weeks went by Swain’s visits grew very frequent.
[t - d]
Mind that the prevocalic voiceless ft] in a stressed syllable should be aspirated and strong whereas the voiced [d] in a similar case should be unaspirated and weak.
7. Read the pairs of words and the sentences:
||two - do
||tone - don't
||‵Tommy - ‵doctor
||ton - done
||take - date
||tall - ‵dollar
B. 1. Today Tommy found a real book. 2. Daddy and Tommy turned back. 3. Did Tom tell them he preferred telebooks? - He did. 4. "I can't do a thing with him," he told the doctor. "He won't take his pineapple juice. He doesn't like it."
Do not insert the unnecessary [w] when the diphthong is. followed by a vowel as in this word.