Lessons 3, 4


Mind that Vowel No 1, [i:], is a diphthongoid: it begins with [ı] and then glides to [i:] proper (closer and more front, approaching the Russian [И]). To achieve that first make the opening between the jaws a bit broader keeping your lips neutral and then spreading them, thus making the vowel closer.

1. Read the pairs of words and the sentences. Observe their length variants. Make the vowel [i] checked in its shorter length variant:

A. since - seen visit - veal exibiting - immediately
  milk - meal quickly - speaking irresistible - inconvenience

B. 1. His sister has measles. 2. She didn't seem to believe him. 3. He arrived at Riskin Street to see a sick boy who had caused his mother


the inconvenience by falling ill with measles. 4. I candidly mean that for me the name Ernest has always been irresistible.


Mind that though both are mid vowels, [з:] is a mixed (centralized) vowel and [ാ:] is a bасk vowel. If your [з:] has, by mistake, the shade of [ാ:] add to it the colouring of the Rissian [Э].

2. Read the pairs of words and the sentences. Observe their length variants:

A. small - swor Walker - worker notorious - nervous
  talk - Turk because - to curse importance - earnest

B. 1. John Worthing is a character from the play "The Importance of Being Earnest". 2. He saw her and talked to her. She was a small girl in a tweed skirt. 3. The doctor was determined to talk to that notorious person about the circumstances.


Avoid the palatalization of the consonants 1 before front and mixed vowels.

The following ways can be of some use: a) first pronounce the same consonant in a word where it is "followed by a back vowel and remem-btr how it sounds; b) then try to preserve the non-palatalized consonant in the original word where it is followed by a front or mixed vowel by making a temporary pause between the consonant and the vowel. When the tongue gets used to the necessary quality of the consonant, pronounce it without a pause. For example: the word to be pronounced is 'peel'. First pronounce 'paw' (or 'put') and then 'p-eel, p-eel, peel'.

3. Read the words and the sentences:

A. first meaning anything ideals
  girl medical system magazine
  we destined here expensive

B. 1. Charming day it has been, Miss Fairfax. 2. Pray don't talk to me about the weather, Mr, Worthing. 3. When people talk to me about the weather, I feel certain they mean something else. 4. He could not help thinking how clear her skin was, with a tiny mole, exactly the colour of her eyes.

[ŋ; n-ŋ]

Mind that [ŋ] is a backlingual consonant: the very back of the tongue is raised and pressed against the soft palate. That's why do not let the


blade or the tip of the tongue touch the upper teeth or the teeth ridge, otherwise either the Russian [H] or the English [n] will sound instead. To avoid the mistakes open your mouth very wide and keep the tip of the tongue at the lower teeth when [ŋ] is articulated.

Though [ŋ] is an оссlusive sonorant, the obstruction is nоt released when it sounds. If it is released with a jerk, the soft palate can rise blocking the passage through the nasal cavity and as a result of this the consonants [k] or [g] can sound after [ŋ].

Remember that in the intervocalic position when -ng is followed by a vowel without any pause: a) in verbal forms and nouns derived from verbs besides [ŋ] the additional consonant [ŋ̃] should sound. It somewhat differs in its articulation from the basic (main) consonant [ŋ]: first the uvular gets in contact with the back part of the tongue and then the obstruction is released with a jerk and some plosion but the soft palate is kept lowered. So the variant [ŋ̃] is a nasal, occlusive, plosive consonant (sonorant): singing [sıĭŋ̃ıŋ], ginger [ıŋŋ̃ə].

b) In the degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs besides [ŋ] [g] should sound: longer [l;ŋgə], younger [j∧ŋgə].

In the word final position and before a consonant -ng is pronounced [-ng] but in some words in which -ng is followed by a sonorant, [g] sounds in addition: England [ıŋglənd], hungry [h∧ŋgrı].

In the letter, combinations nk, nc, nx the letter n is pronounced [ŋ]: uncle [∧ŋkl], ink [ıŋk], anxious [æŋk∫əs].

4. Read the words, the phrases and the sentences:

A. among stronger B. skin - skiing
  darling angry   children - chilling
  stockings English   do in - doing
  frank swinging   send in - sending
  distinct coming out   persist in - persisting
        go in for - going for.

C. 1. Oh, darling, I do mean something else. 2. Mr. Worthing could not help thinking about his younger brother. 3. Swinging around she asked in angry tone: "There's nothing more, is there?" and he could see the soft beating in her neck. 4. "Stand up children, and say: 'Good morning, Doctor Manson. Thank you for coming.'" The infants rose and chanted her ironic bidding.

[, u:]

Remember that Vowel No 9 [u:] is a diphthongoid: its beginning is very near in quality to Vowel No 8 [], it is a back-advanced close vowel, the broad variant. To make the beginning of the vowel sound that way add to it the colouring of the Russian [Ы]. As the vowel goes on, it becomes closer, approaching the Russian [У] (but the lips should not be strained and protruded). As the vowel proceeds, you should feel your tongue go simultaneously up and backwards.


5. Read the pairs of words and the sentences. Observe the length variants of the two vowels. Make the vowel [] checked in its shorter length variant:

A. should - intrude stood - school understood - twenty-two
  could - protrude took - suit speculate - solitude

B. 1. It'll do him a lot of good. 2. That afternoon he went to the school to have a. look at the intrusive girl. 3. Are you absolutely sure you couldn't love me then, that there's no music in the name Jack? - No, it produces absolutely no vibrations. It doesn't look good to me at all.

[∫, ჳ]

Remember that both the consonants should be palatal (but not so very palatal as the palatal variant of the similar Russian consonants) in any position in the word and before any vowel because they are always articulated with a front secondary focus. But do not raise the middle of the tongue too high and do not strain the muscles of the tongue too much; make them short. Otherwise they will be in fact replaced by the Russian consonants [Щ] and [ЖЖ'] like in "щи, вожжи".

6. Read the words and the sentences:

A. shake officious fresh pleasure
  shiny especially flush provision

B. 1. She flushed. His sharp words were still fresh in her memory. 2. She's sure that Shannon should make provision for his affectionate mother. 3. She said her decision was that he should take measures and find some relations.


1 With the exception of those that should be a bit palatal because they are articulated with a front secondary focus. They are the clear [l], [∫, ჳ; t∫, dჳ].

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