Essential Vocabulary

Vocabulary Notes

1. track n 1) a mark left by someone or smth. that has passed, as the tracks of an animal (a car); to leave tracks, to follow the tracks of; tracks in the snow (in the sand); to be on the track of smb. to be in pursuit of smb., e.g. The police were on the track of the thief, to cover up one's tracks to conceal one's movements, e.g. The man was sure he had covered up his tracks. 2) a path, a narrow rough road, as a track through a forest (a field); a narrow, hardly visible track; the beaten track the usual way of doing things, e.g. Andrew was not a person to follow the beaten track. to keep (lose) track of to keep in (lose) touch with, e.g. You should keep track of current events. 3) a set of rails on which trains or trams run, as а single (double) track

2. conscious adj 1) feeling, realizing, as to be conscious of one's mistakes, guilt, faults, danger, smb.'s presence, a pain, etc. Syn. aware. Ant. unconscious, unaware 2) having the power to know that one can think and feel, e.g. Man is a conscious animal. He spoke with conscious superiority. 3) (predic.) having possession of one's senses, e.g. The old man was conscious to the last. Ant. unconscious, e.g. She lay unconscious until the doctor gave her an injection, self-conscious too keenly aware of one's own manners and appearance, e.g. She is too self-conscious to feel at ease among strangers.

consciousness n the state of being conscious; to lose consciousness to faint, e.g. The blow caused him to lose consciousness, to recover (regain) consciousness to come to, e.g. He did not recover (regain) consciousness until two hours after the accident.

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3. outline n 1) lines showing shapes or boundary, as an outline map (of Africa, Europe, etc.); the outline (outlines) of a building (trees, mountains), e.g. Lanny could hardly make out the outlines of the big house in the dark. 2) a general statement of the chief points of smth., as an outline of a composition (a lecture, a book); in outline done roughly, told briefly, e.g. Bosinney showed Soames the design of the house in outline. I can tell you the article in outline.

outline vt to give the main points of, as to outline a certain historical period (events, etc.); to be outlined against smth. to stand out against smth., e.g. She was outlined against the sky.

4. rough adj 1) (of surfaces) uneven, irregular, coarse, as rough paper, a rough road, rough hair 2) moving or acting violently, not calm, mild, or gentle, as a rough sea, a rough crossing, a rough day, a rough child, rough luck 3) unskilled; incomplete, not perfect, as a rough sketch, а rough translation; a rough diamond an uncut diamond; fig. a good-hearted but uncultured fellow 4) (of conduct or speech) rude; uncivil, as rough reply, rough words; a rough tongue rude angry speech 5) (of sounds) harsh, discordant, as a rough voice. Syn. coarse, rude, harsh

5. eye n 1) the part of the body with which we see, e.g. We see with our eyes. It was so interesting that I couldn't take (keep) my eyes off it. to keep an eye on to watch carefully, e.g. Cook asked me to keep an eye on the meat while she was away, to open a person's eyes to smth. to bring it to his notice, e.g. His words opened my eyes to their relations, to make eyes at (a person) to look lovingly at; to see eye to eye with a person to see smth. in the same way, agree entirely with, e.g. I regret I don't see eye to eye with you on that subject, with an eye to with a view to, hoping for, e.g..I didn't come here for pleasure but with an eye to business, to close one's eyes to to refuse to see, e.g. You should close your eyes to her misbehaviour, to run one's eyes over (through) to glance at; examine quickly, e.g. He quickly ran his eyes over the page. to have an eye for to be able to see well or quickly, as to have an eye for beauty 2) a thing like an eye, as the hole in the end of a needle, an electronic eye

eye vt to watch carefully, as to eye a person with suspicion

6. wonder vt/i 1) to be anxious to know, e.g. I wonder who he is (what he wants, why he is late, whether he'll come, if it is correct, how you can be so tactless as to say that,...) Who is he I wonder? What does he want I wonder? 2) -to be surprised, e.g. I wonder at your saying that.

wonder n cause of surprise; a remarkable thing, e.g. Soviet spaceships are the wonder of modern science. Her eyes are the wonder. A wonder lasts but nine days. (Prov.) She had worked unsparingly at this task. It is no wonder that she overstrained herself. He refuses to help, and no wonder.

7. limp vi to walk lamely as when one leg or foot is stiff, injured, as to limp on one's right (left) foot, e.g. Ashurst was limping along. The man limped on. The wounded soldier limped off the battle-field.

limp n (usu. sing. with ind. art.) a lame walk, as to walk with a limp; to have a bad limp

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lame adj 1) not able to walk properly, as a lame man (child, horse); to be lame in the right (left) foot; to go lame; a lame duck a disabled person (a failure) 2) unconvincing; unsatisfactory, as a lame excuse (argument, story, explanation), e.g. His explanation sounded lame.

8. put vtli 1) to place, e.g. Put more sugar in your tea. Put the book in its right place, the flowers into water, a mark against his name. George put an advertisement in a newspaper. 2) to cause to be in a certain position or state, e.g. Jim was put to prison. Put yourself in my place. Put it out of your mind. Let's put the documents in order. The new manager put an end to the slack discipline. She knew how to put him at his ease. 3) to express in words, e.g. I don't know how to put it. I wouldn't put it that way. I’ve put it badly. To put in black and white. I'd like to put a question to you. 4) to subject, as to put smb. to expense, inconvenience, test.

With postlogues

put aside to save, to move smth. away, e.g. Put aside the book. The man put aside some money for a rainy day.

put away to set aside, as to put away one's things, books, a letter

put back to replace, to move backwards, e.g. The clock was 5 minutes fast and he put back the hands. Put the dictionary back on the shelf, please.

put down to write down, e.g. Put down my address.

put down to to explain the cause, e.g. The flue was put down to damp weather.

put in to speak in favour, as to put in a word for a friend

put off to postpone, e.g. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. The meeting was put off till Monday (for two days), put off to escape doing smth. by making excuses, e.g. She tried to put me off with a jest (promises, excuses).

put on to assume or to pretend to have; to increase, e.g. His modesty is all put on. She went on a diet, not to put on weight. We must put on the pace, otherwise we'll be late.

put out to cause to stop burning; to confuse or annoy, e.g. Put out the candle (the fire, the lamp, the gas). He was very much put out by the unexpected delay.

put through to put in communication with smb. by telephone, e.g. Put me through to the manager, please.

put up to raise or to provide food and lodging or to lodge, e.g. The boy put up his hand eager to answer the teacher's question. We shall put up at an inn for the night. The landlady agreed to put us up if we did not mind to share one room.

put up with to bear, e.g. I can't and won't put up with all this noise.

9. shy adj uncomfortable in the presence of others, as a shy person (boy, girl); a shy smile, e.g. Amelia wasn't shy of showing George her affection.

shyness n, e.g. She spoke without shyness.

shyly adv, e.g. She dropped her eyes shyly.

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10. stretch vt/i 1) to extend or draw; to strain to the utmost, e.g. Silk socks stretch, woollen ones shrink. They stretched a wire across the road. He rose, stretched himself and made for the bathroom. He stretched out his hand with the letter, to stretch one's legs to exercise one's legs after a long period of sitting, e.g. Let's go for a stroll to stretch our legs. 2) to lie at full length, e.g. He stretched himself out on the lawn.

stretch n an unbroken period of time; at a stretch without stopping, e.g. He drove the car five hours at a stretch.

outstretched adj stretched or spread out, e.g. His outstretched hand remained in the air.

11. hold (held, held) vt/i 1) to have and keep fast in or with the hands, e.g. He was holding a book in his hands, to hold on (to smth.) to keep one's grasp, e.g. Robinson was holding on to a branch. 2) to keep or support oneself in a certain attitude, e.g. Hold your arms out. Hold your head up. to hold out one's hand to stretch out, e.g. Annie held out her hand with a little package in it. to hold smth. back (from) to keep secret, e.g. You should hold back this news from them for a while. 3) to contain, or be able to contain, e.g. A paper bag will hold sand, but it won't hold water. Sea water holds many salts in solution. 4) to restrain, e.g. I held my breath and listened, to hold off to keep at a distance, e.g.'Hold your dog off. 5) to bring about; to conduct; to take part in, as to hold a meeting (examination, lecture, trial, etc.). The meeting will be held on Monday. They are going to hold a trial there. 6) to remain the same; to last; to continue, e.g. How long will the weather hold? to hold together to remain united, e.g. Hold together and you won't be defeated.

hold n the act, manner or power of holding, as to catch (get, take, have, keep, lose) hold of a thing or a person, e.g. He caught hold of the rope and climbed on board.

Word Combinations and Phrases

after their last (first, second) year together at college (the university, etc.) to break in (into a conversation)
to hurt or pain smb. (My leg is hurting me, hurts.)  
according to smth. (their map, my watch, their orders or instructions, her words, etc.) to take smb. in from head to heel
smoth hair (forehead, surface, board, paper, skin, road, sea) to get smth. ready
with one’s eyes on smb. or smth. (with one’s hair flung back) to be in leaf (in flower)
to show smb. the way there’s no room for
  one at a time

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