Essential Vocabulary

Vocabulary Notes

1. warn vt 1) to give smb. notice of possible danger or unpleasant consequences; inform in advance of what may happen, as to warn smb. of smth., e. g. He was warned of the danger. We warned them not to go skating on such thin ice. 2) to put on guard, as to warn smb. against smth., smb., e. g. The doctor warned me against working too hard.

warning ad) that warns, e. g. He gave me a warning look.

warning n 1) that which warns or serves to warn, e. g. He paid no attention to my warnings. Let it be a warning to you. 2) action of warning

2. hostile adj 1) of an enemy, as a hostile army, hostile forces, e. g. The hostile army occupied the major part of the country. 2) feeling or showing enmity to; unfrjendly, as a hostile crowd (look, tone, attitude), e. g. In a hostile tone he asked me to state my business.

hostility n 1) enmity, ill will, as feelings of hostility, to feel no hostility towards a person, to show hostility to smb., e. g. Strange as it is I feel no hostility towards my bitter enemy. He showed no hostility to the stranger. 2) pl. acts of war, as to open (suspend) hostilities, e. g. The enemy opened hostilities without warning.

3. state n 1) (sing, only) condition in which smth. or smb. is, e. g. The house was in a dirty state. She is in a poor state of health, to be (get) in a state to be excited, or anxious, e. g. Don't get into a state! 2) organized political community with its apparatus of government; territory in which this exists, e. g. Railways in Great Britain belong to the state. How many states are there in the United States of America? 3) (a-trib.) of, for, concerned with the state, as state documents (records, archives, papers, farm), State Secretary, State Department, e.g. The State Department is the ministry of foreign affairs in the USA.

state vt express in words especially carefully and clearly, e. g. FJe stated positively that he had never seen the accused man. Please, state the facts clearly and without emotion.


statement n 1) expression in words, e. g. Clearness of statement is more important than beauty of language. How am I to take your statement? 2) stating of facts, views, a problem, etc., as to make (issue) a statement, e. g. An official statement was issued to the public the next morning.

statesman n person taking an important part in the management of state affairs, e. g. The delegation of foreign statesmen was expected to arrive in Moscow for talks.

4. social adj 1) of people living in communities; of relations between persons and communities, as social customs (reforms, welfare, security system, figure, science), e. g. All our work is for the social welfare of the people. 2) for companionship, as a social club (evening, life), e. g. Her social life takes up most of her time.

sociable adj fond of company of others, showing friendliness, e. g. He is a sociable person and a good mixer.

socialism n the stage of society following capitalism in the transition to communism, as to build (up) socialism, to establish socialism, to follow the path of socialism, e. g. Socialism has proved that it represents a higher social system.

socialist n relating to socialism, as socialist revolution (emulation, party, system, industry, country., world), e. g. The USSR is the first socialist country in the world.

5. unite vt/i 1) to make or become one; join, as to unite one country to another, to unite efforts (forces, peoples), e. g. We have common interests that unite our two countries. 2) to act or work together, e. g. The outbreak of war united the nation. We are united in the struggle for peace. Workers of the world, unite!

united adj 1) joined in spirit, by love and sympathy, as a united family, e. g. Theirs was a united family. 2) resulting from association for a common purpose, as to make a united effort, the United Nation Organisation, e. g. The United Nation Organisation has adopted a new declaration. 3) joined politically, as the United Kingdom, the United States of America, e. g. The president of the United States is elected every fourth year.

union n 1) uniting or being united, as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Soviet Union 2) association formed by ,the uniting of persons, groups, as trade union, e. g. The workers were willing to join the Trade Union. He is a member of the Composers' Union, the Union Jack the British Flag.

6. power n 1) ability to do or act, e. g. It is out of my power to help you. He has a tremendous will power. 2) energy or force that can be used to do work, as water power, atomic power, power station, an engine of sixty horse power, e. g. The major characteristic of this region is its unusual store of potential water power. 3) right possessed by, or granted to, a person or group of persons, e. g. "Power to the people" is a revolutionary slogan, to be in power, to have power, to come to power, to seize power, e.g. That party was not in power very long. 4) state having great authority


and influence in international affairs, as the Great Powers, naval power, e. g. The USSR is a great power.

powerful adj having or producing great power, as a powerful blow (enemy, speech), e. g. Be careful, this is a very powerful drug. They struck a powerful blow to the enemy.

7. economical adj careful in spending money, time, etc., and in the use of goods, not wasteful, as an economical person (housewife, method of teaching, project), e. g. The poor woman had to be very economical to make both ends meet. Syn. thrifty.

economic adj of economics, as economic policy (independence, condition, development, aid, crisis, plan, relations, geography), as Council for Mutual Economic Aid, European Economic Community, e. g. The co-operation of the socialist countries is carried out through the Council for Mutual Economic Aid.

economize vtli to be economical, to use or spend less than before; to cut down expenses, e. g. Economize as he would Martin could not balance the expenses. We must economize on light and fuel.

economy n 1) avoidance oil waste of money, strength or anything else of value, e.g. In the long run it is an economy to buy good quality goods, even though they cost more. 2) control and management of the money, goods and other resources of community, society, as national economy, socialist system of economy, political economy, e. g. The socialist countries' economy is growing rapidly.

8. exploit n bold or adventurous act; brilliant achievement, e. g. The exploits of Don Quixote make an entertaining reading.

exploit vt 1) to use, work or develop (mines, water power, other natural resources of a country), e. g. Modern capitalism until it is destroyed will continue to exploit the human heritage stupidly and aimlessly. 2) to use selfishly or for one's own profit, e. g. He made his fortune by exploiting the poor.

exploitation exploiting or being exploited (both senses), as exploitation of a new country, e. g. The October Socialist Revolution put an end to the exploitation of man by man.

Word Combinations and Phrases

to encounter smb. highly developed
to destroy capitalism to have a vision of the world
on the other hand essential difference
to strip off a pretence to overthrow an economic system
limitless experiment the inevitable class war
to be engaged in the downfall of the capitalist order
to try method after method  
to answer one's purpose the proletarian dictatorship
densely populated national resourses


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