1. Mozart ['moutsa:t], Wolfgang Amadeus (1756-1791), an Austrian composer

2. The story of Don Giovanni is based on a 14th century Spanish legend. It has been dramatized by a number of famous playwrights, the first being Tirso de Molina in the 16th century.

Moliere and Goldoni used the story as a subject for plays, and later Byron wrote his famous poem "Don Juan".

3. Tirso de Molina ['tirsou dei тэ'П:пз] (1571P-1648), a Spanish dramatist

4. Moliere ['moliea] (1622-1673), pseudonym of Jean Baptiste Poquelin, a French actor and dramatist

5. Goldoni [gol'dount] Carlo (1707-1793), an Italian dramatist

6. Mozart's opera "The Marriage of Figaro" continues the story begun in Rossini's "The Barber of Seville" both based on plays by Beaumarchais.

7. Haydn [haidn] Franz Joseph (1732-1809), an Austrian composer

8. Handel ['hændl] George Frederik (1685-1759), a British (German-born) composer

9. Bach [ba:x(k)] Johann Sebastian (1685-1750), a German organist and composer

10. Gluck [glu:k] Christoph Willibald (1714-1787), a German composer


1. Sentences with while-clauses

a) Mozart saw the opera as the tragedy of the Don ..., while Da Ponte was determined to write a comedy of intrigue.

The conjunction while may have the meaning of but in contrast- в то же время, тогда как, а.

In this meaning it is synonymous with whereas.

She is always grumbling, while (whereas) he is always cheerful. Она всегда ворчит, а он всегда весел.

The use of tense forms in such sentences is determined by general rules.

b) ... he asked her to prepare some punch to keep him away while he wrote the overture.

... he could only go on while Constanze was speaking.

The conjunction while may also introduce subordinate clauses of time. It has the meaning of during the time that, for'as long as, at that same time as - пока, в то время как, когда.


In complex sentences with a даШе-clause we generally find the following combinations of forms:

Principal Clause While-clause
the Past Indefinite The Past Indefinite or
The Past Continuous

The combination of forms may express different time relations between the actions of the clauses.

1) The actions may be fully simultaneous.

He continued his work while she had breakfast. Он продолжал работу, в то время как она завтракала.
She sat still as a statue while he was playing the prelude. Она сидела неподвижно, как статуя, пока он играл прелюдию.

2) The actions may be partially simultaneous. In this case the action of the subordinate clause serves as a background for the action of the principal clause which is a shorter completed action.

While he stood irresolute, the door opened and his uncle came in. Пока он стоял в нерешительности, дверь отворилась и вошел его дядя.
She tore her dress while she was changing. Она порвала платье, когда переодевалась.

2. Gerund as Adverbial Modifier of Time (Prep + Gerund)

... he had wanted to hear how the Commandant's scenes sounded before introducing his music thematically into the overture.

The gerund can serve as an adverbial modifier of time. In this function it is preceded by the prepositions before, after and on.

Before indicates that the action expressed by the gerund follows that of the predicate verb and is usually placed after the predicate verb.

Erik hesitated a moment or two. before answering. Эрик колебался минуту-другую, прежде чем ответить.

After indicates that the action expressed by the gerund precedes the action expressed by the predicate verb.

After staying away eighteen years he felt a stranger in the town. После восемнадцатилетнего отсутствия он чувствовал себя чужим в городе.

On expresses the same relations as after. But it emphasizes the idea of immediate succession of the two actions.

On arriving at the cottage she found it locked. Подойдя к дому, она обнаружила, что он закрыт.

The gerund introduced by after and on is usually placed before the predicate verb.


Note: Participle I can also be used in the function of an adverbial modifier of time. It generally denotes an action simultaneous with that of the predicate verb.

Crossing the street to catch his bus, he saw his sister drive by. Переходя улицу к автобусной остановке, он увидел, как мимо проехала сестра.

Yet if both the predicate verb and Participle I are expressed by terminative verbs, the action of the participle precedes that of the predicate verb.

Turning to her, the boy remarked, "It's been a nice day." Обернувшись к ней, мальчик сказал: "Это был прекрасный день".

//The Perfect form of Participle I which stresses a prior action (the priority of the action) is not in frequent use in Modern English. The gerund with after or on is more frequently used. //



Translate the words and word combinations in bold type and the sentences which illustrate them:

1. The text, by the poet Da Ponte, began to take shape.

to take shape - become definite in form or outline The new building is beginning to take shape. Suspicion began to take shape in my mind.

2. He was determined to write a comedy of intrigue.

to be determined to do smth, on (upon) smth - be resolved, be firm in one's intention

He was determined to prove his friend's innocence.

3. ... the more it fired his imagination.

to fire vt - excite or stimulate

The more he read the book the more it fired the boy's imagination.

4. He was unconcerned about what kind of an opera ...

to be unconcerned about - not care about, be free from anxiety

They were still young and quite unconcerned about the future.

To be concerned about (for) smb, smth - be unhappy or troubled or anxious

Please don't be concerned about me. We are all concerned fcr (about) her safety. We were very concerned to hear that our beloved Professor had fallen ill. Is he much concerned about what happened?


5. … and he concentrated on breathing musical life into ...

to concentrate vt & vi (on, upon) - focus one's attention on You should concentrate (your attention) (up) on your work. You'll solve the problem if you concentrate upon it (give all your attention to it). It's hard for me to concentrate today.

6. ... and adjust the text to the singers ...

to adjust vt - make slight changes in order to set right; regulate; make suitable or convenient for use

She will have to adjust herself to the new conditions if she accepts the job (change her way of living, thinking, etc). The machine needs adjusting. I can't adjust myself to the climate here. Adjust your tie.

7. ... so that they could consult with each other from window to window.

to consult with smb - take counsel, seek information or advice I must consult with my fellow workers before I start doing the job.

8. ... to prepare some punch to keep him awake.

awake pred adj - no longer asleep; not yet asleep

to be (keep, stay) awake; to keep smb awake

Is he awake yet? I'm not wide awake yet. The noise in the street kept me awake most of last night.

9. She said, "Take a nap on the sofa, I will arouse you in an hour."

nap n - short sleep esp during the day, not necessarily in bed The old man always had a nap after lunch. It I don't take a nap, I won't be able to work tonight.

10. ... she didn't have the heart to disturb him.

to have the heart to do (usu neg)- be hard-hearted or unsympathetic enough to do or say something (also used interrogatively with can, could)

How can you have the heart to say such things to your sister? I haven't the heart to do it.

11. ... he was not that positive.

that adv (colloq) - to such a degree; so

I can't walk that far (as far as that). I've done only that much (as much as it is shown, indicated, etc). It's about that high (as high as that).

12. The overture went off very well.

to go off (of events) - proceed well, etc

The performance (concert) went off well. How did the sports meeting go off? Our meetings generally go off very smoothly.



Translate the following sentences paying careful attention to the words and word combinations in bold type. Give possible variants:

1. Fired with the desire to buy a motorbike, Brian made his own decision about getting a job. I'm ready to answer questions, fire away. 2. Can we put it down to his ignorance? He's putting on weight. The least thing puts him out. She was very much put out by your rudeness. I feel quite put out about it. Please put me (this call) through to the director. There are many inconveniences that have to be put up with when you are camping. 3. James went to the office to consult his lawyer. You should have consulted us before making final plans. From time to time she consulted the catalogue. 4. He's a hearty eater, but still he's very thin. He seemed to lose heart in the business after that. You could hardly pass an evening with her and not lose your heart. "You're wonderful, Jane," he said. She took heart: "I wish your friends would think so." 5. Let's go through the arguments again. Don't let go of the rope till I tell you. I'm going out to dinner tonight.


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