1. Past Perfect + Past Continuous

The official meeting had broken up for the session and I was drinking coffee ...

In coordinated sentences the Past Perfect is often used in combination with the Past Continuous when both actions are viewed from the same moment, one action being completed while the other is still in progress. In Russian we find the combination of a perfective and an imperfective -verb.

His father had died and he was running the firm. Его отец умер, и теперь он управлял фирмой.

The Past Perfect and the Past Continuous may be used in a sentence where there are homogeneous predicates. This pattern is in extensive use.

Enid had pushed the goods aside and was sitting on the counter, close to the window. Энид отодвинула товары и сидела на прилавке у окна.


Note: The Past Indefinite is used to denote two successive actions which take place in the past.

Enid pushed the goods aside and sat down on the counter. Энид отодвинула товары и села на прилавок.

2. Clauses of Real Condition

"He can't be dead - unless something's happened to him in the last few weeks."

Clauses of condition (real and unreal) are generally joined to the principal clause by means of the conjunction if.

Clauses of real condition may also be introduced by the conjunction unless. Clauses introduced by unless indicate the only factor or condition which may prevent the realization of the action of the principal clause. The most adequate way of rendering this conjunction in Russian is если только не.

He won't be told about it unless it is absolutely necessary. Ему об этом не скажут, если только это не будет совершенно необходимо.

3. Sentences with a/fer-clauses (see the second part of the text on p. 240.)

It was her farm he ended up at after his plane had crashed.

In sentences with adverbial clauses introduced by the conjunction after, where both actions refer to the Past, the Past Perfect is found in the after-clause and the Past Indefinite - in. the principal clause.

After Gordon had talked to his father, he announced to Enid that they couldn't go to the seaside. После того как Гордон поговорил с отцом, он объявил Энид, что они не смогут поехать к морю.

The Past Perfect is used in the after-clause with terminative as well as durative verbs. With terminative verbs, however, the Past Perfect may be replaced by the Past Indefinite.

Shortly after they returnad, Mrs. Packletide gave a lunch in her friend's honour. Вскоре после того, как они вернулись из Индии, миссис Паклтайд дала завтрак в честь своей подруги.



Translate the words and word combinations in bold type and the sentences which illustrate them:

1. I was asked to attend a conference ...

to attend vt (a meeting, lecture; school, etc) - go to, be present at

Nobody expected so many people to attend her lecture. His lectures were well attended.


2. The official meeting had broken up for that session ...

to break up (a meeting, company, school, etc) - stop proceedings and separate…

The party broke up early. The meeting was breaking up; Мог rose to his feet and stretched, he felt tired. When does school break up for the summer holidays?

3. You would have taken him for a University professor

to take smb, smth for ...; to take smb, smth to be ... - suppose that he is; consider smb, smth to be

He spoke English so well that everybody took him for an Englishman. I took him to be an honest man. Who do you take me for? Even the experts took the painting for a genuine Rembrandt.

4. ... one of the most cunning guerrilla fighters I had ever come across.

to come across smb, smth - find or meet by chance

I came across this old brooch in a curio shop. He came across the book in a second-hand shop. I came across him while travelling.

Note: the synonym to come upon (in the meaning of to find or meet by chance) is less frequent.

5. ... Big, burly creature with two fingers missing on his right hand.

missing a - lacking, not be found; not in the place expected.

She returned my book with two pages missing. He was listed among the missing. The missing men turned up two days later.

6. Then instead of working his way back to England ...

to work one's way to (through, etc) - make a way or passage slowly or with difficulty, usu with opposition

We worked our way through the crowd. They worked their way to the village. We slowly worked our way up the mountain side.

7. Why, once he took on a whole brigade and got away with it. to get away with smth - succeed in doing something and escape

blame, punishment or misfortune

It was a silly remark, but she was pretty enough to get away with it.

8. Ritten and Bloot were tough realists who wouldn't easily be taken in by a completely fabricated yarn.

to take smb in (often passive) - deceive, get the better of smb by a trick

Don't let yourself be taken in by his promises. I'm annoyed with myself for being so easily taken in. She was quite taken in by his promises. He was badly taken in when he bought that second-hand car. I'm sure he's taking you in. You can't take me:in like that.



Translate the following sentences paying careful attention to the words and word combinations in bold type. Give possible variants.

1. Will you take charge of my luggage while I'm away? Don't take it too much to heart. You shouldn't take offence at what Father said. You're too quick to take offence. They've taken to skating together. The boy took to his new teacher. She intends to take up medicine (painting, physics, etc) after school. 2. All his plans came to nothing. It just comes to this: I shall never trust him in future. When it comes to helping his wife with the housework, John never grumbles. They could not come to an agreement for a long time. I'd li:ke you to come to your senses: you can't behave like that. Sometimes your help comes in handy. This tool will come in handy during the trip. No good will come of it. That's what comes of grumbling (of being careless, slow; of being in such a hurry, etc). Come round this evening, you will be welcome. 3. His memory (courage) failed him. She never failed to write to her mother when she was away. He failed to come in time. He did not fail to keep his word. 4. I don't think your plan will work. The medicine worked wonders. They made him work his passage to London. He's working his way through medical school (college, etc). 5. How can you tell one from another? I can't tell an driginal picture from a copy. The strain of the six months began to tell upon Eliza. All this hard work is telling on his health. You cari never tell (you never can tell).


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