In the course of its development the English language has borrowed a considerable number of words from other languages, which have greatly increased the English vocabulary. The largest group of borrowed words are of French and Latin origin. There are also borrowings from the Scandinavian languages, from Spanish, Italian, Russian and other languages.

For example, in the text alongside words of Anglo-Saxon origin like father, son, wife, to live, to see, to hear, old, young and many others we find a lot of words that come from French: humour, miserable, hotel, challenge, accuse, arrive, regard, credit, reply, retire and others.

There are also borrowings which come direct from Latin. These are anxious, interrupt, interior. The words monotony, enthusiasm are of Greek origin. The word veranda came into English from Hindustani.

In some cases borrowings may be easily recognized through peculiarities of pronunciation (memoir), spelling (naïve, façade), morphological structure (phenomenon - pl phenomena, crisis - pl crises). In many cases borrowings have become so assimilated in English that one has to make use of a dictionary to find out their true origin. Such is the case with these words from the text: place, air, car (Fr), ugly, take, ill (Scan), mile, street, station (Lat)


1. Sentences with before-clauses

At the station, before she had time to leave the car, the station-master came out and spoke to her.

In complex sentences with a subordinate clause of time introduced by the conjunction before in which both actions refer to the past we find the following combinations of tense forms:

Principal clause Before-clause
a) The Past Indefinite the Past Indefinite
b) The Past Perfect the Past Indefinite
c) The Past Indefinite the Past Perfect


These combinations show different time relations between the action of the adverbial clause and that of the principal clause.

a) He appointed the date for our meeting long before he came to the city. Он назначил день нашей встречи задолго до того, как приехал в наш город.

This combination shows that the action of the principal clause precedes that of the subordinate clause. In Russian the subordinate clause is introduced by the conjunctions до того как, прежде чем; перед тем как.

b) They had not gone four miles before they saw it was going to rain. Они не прошли и четырех миль, как увидели, что будет дождь.

The Past Perfect in the principal clause indicates that the action is not completed before the other action takes place. In Russian sentences we find the expressions не успели, не успев or the structure не ... и, как (когда).

с) I discovered the news before I had been in the house for an hour. Я узнал эту новость, не успев пробыть и часа в доме.

The Past Perfect in the subordinate clause shows that the action is not completed before the action of the principal clause takes place. The verb in English is not negative, but it is rendered in Russian by a negative form.

2. Infinitive of Subsequent Action

Eagerly she ran to the door and opened it to see old Mr. Day standing outside.

The Infinitive is often used to express an action following the action of the predicate verb. Both actions refer to one and the same agent. In Russian we find two finite forms connected by the conjunction и.

He awoke to hear a light rain whispering in the garden. Он проснулся и услышал, как в саду шелестит тихий дождь.

The predicate is commonly expressed either by a verb of motion - to turn, to come, to reach, to run, to rush, to walk, to return - or the verbs to look, to glance (followed by up, down, across, about, round, etc), to wake up and some others.

The infinitive of subsequent action is most frequently expressed by the verbs to find, to discover, to see, to hear and their synonyms and usually refers to unexpected consequence.

He turned to find his friends looking at him with surprise. Он обернулся и заметил, что друзья смотрят на него с удивлением.


fie rushed into, the room to discover that it was empty. Он бросился в комнату и увидел, что она пуста.

The infinitive of subsequent action is mostly used in narrative.



Translate the words and word combinations in bold type and the sentences which illustrate them:

1. ... wanting some groceries on credit again.

to buy (sell) smth on credit - buy (sell) goods, payment being made later

Everything in the house had been bought on credit.

2. If she had her way she would give them what they wanted.

to have one's (own) way - get (do) what one wants; see one's wishes fulfilled, etc

She thought she should not let the child have his own way all the time. After a noisy argument Vi had her way.

Have it your own way (used when one refuses to argue or discuss any further).

3. But the holidays would make things all right again.

to make things all right (worse, better, etc.)

thing (usu pi) -circumstance; condition; event; course of action That'll only make things (= the situation) worse. You take things (= happenings) too seriously. I must think things over (= think about what had happened, what is to be done, etc). Things (= the state of affairs) are getting worse and worse.

4. If only she could persuade Gordon to have a holiday now and then.

now and then - sometimes; occasionally; from time to time We go to the opera now and then.

5. ... and she felt like replying, "You're a good argument for my case."

to feel like doing smth (like smth) - be in the mood for I don't feel like eating a big meal now. We'll go for a walk if you feel like it.

6. ... it was no good worrying herself ... .

to be no good (use) doing smth - be senseless (useless) to do smth

It's no good talking to him now. It's no use pretending that you didn't know the rules.

... she and Gordon would be off for the seaside.

to be off - go or leave or start


He's off to London. It's time I was off. I must be off (= I must leave now). We're off (- we've started).

8. ... so that she could have it out with him

to have it out with smb - reach an understanding by frank discussion

You'd better have- it out with him.

-9. ... to see that she wasn't neglecting her work

to neglect one's work (duties, studies, health; children) - pay

no attention to; give no or not enough care and thought to . He lost his job because he neglected his duties.

10. Still, it might bring Gordon to his senses

to bring smb to his senses - cause smb to give up (stop) behaving foolishly or wildly

11. No doubt she had done Gordon an injustice.

to do smb an injustice - judge somebody unfairly

injustice n - an unjust act; a wrong or injury

You are doing him an injustice. He's not a bad sort.

12. ... for she was startled by a knocking at the door.

to startle vt - give a shock of surprise to; cause to move or jump

She was startled to see him looking so ill. The scream startled him out of his sleep.


I. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying careful attention to the word combinations in bold type:

1. We went out of our way to make him feel at home. 2. Who runs the shop in his absence? He ran errands for everybody. A cold shiver ran down his spine. She said, "It runs in the family." She looks terribly run down. She felt that her patience was running out. You're bound to succeed in the long run. 3. This concert is sure to draw a big crowd (crowds of people). I've got to draw the line somewhere. He's becoming unbearable. I drew the line at lending him money. 4. Can you make out what he means? He couldn't make out the word. He's willing to make up for his mistake (for lost time). He made the most of the little he had. It's late, we'd better turn and make for home. He rises, snatches his hat and makes for the door. When the interval came everybody made for the refreshment room. 5. There's no place like home. It was just like him to take the biggest piece of cake. She doesn't hesitate to express her likes and dislikes. 6. That doesn't make sense. Don't interrupt, he's talking sense. 7. I'll always stand by you whatever happens (through thick and thin). She stood by her husband through all his troubles. I wish I knew where I stood. As things stand now I must leave the job. This (that) is how matters stand.


II. Look up the verb to change in an English-English dictionary and write down its meanings. In which of the meanings is it synonymous to the verb to alter? Explain the difference. Give examples.


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