I. Translate the following sentences or parts of sentences from the text:)
1. Not that the lust to kill had suddenly descended on her, or that she felt she would leave India safer and more wholesome than she had found it, with one wild beast less per million inhabitants. 2. ... only a personally procured tiger-skin and a heavy harvest of press photographs could successfully counter that sort of thing. 3. ... with a tiger-
skin rug occupying most of the foreground and all of the conversation. 4. ... and it so happened that a neighbouring village could boast of being the favoured rendezvous of an animal which had been driven by old age to abandon game-killing and confine its appetite to the smaller domestic animals. 5. A goat, gifted with a particularly persistent bleat such as even a partially deaf tiger might be reasonably expected to hear on a still night, was tied to a stake at the correct distance. 6. With an accurately sighted rifle and a thumb-nail pack of patience.cards the sportswomen awaited the appearance of the tiger. 7. "Hush!" said Mrs. Packletide, and at that moment the tiger commenced ambling towards his victim. 8. "Now, now!" urged Miss Mebbin with some excitement. 9. The rifle .flashed out with a loud report, and the great tawny beast sprang to one side and then rolled over in the stillness of death. 10. ... the villagers, anxious for their thousand rupees, gladly connived at the fiction that she had shot the beast. 11. ... and it seemed a fitting and appropriate thing when Mrs. Packletide went to the County Costume Ball in the character of Diana. 12. ... said Miss Mebbin with her disagreeably pleasant smile.
II. Find English equivalents in the text for the following Russian word combinations, phrases and sentences:
она только об этом и говорила; подарить кому-л. брошь из тигрового когтя; дать обед в честь кого-л.; ... чтобы он довольствовался этим местом охоты; в тихую ночь; быть в опасности; беспокоясь за свои деньги; а что касается кого-л.; костюмированный бал; она отказалась от заманчивого предложения (она не пошла на это); перепугать кого-л. до смерти; она побледнела; выдавать кого-л.; это очень дешево, почти даром!; перестать охотиться на крупного зверя; непредвиденные расходы
III. Reproduce situations from the text using the following word combinations:
1. to be governed by dislike of smb, to be carried eleven miles (in an aeroplane), to talk of nothing-else; 2. to give lunch in smb's honour, a tiger-skin rug, a tiger-claw brooch; 3. to offer a thousand rupees, to shoot a tiger without overmuch risk or exertion, to boast of smth, to be driven by old age, to abandon big-game killing; 4. the prospect of earning (a lot of money), to arouse smb's interest, on the outskirts of, to keep smb satisfied with smth, to die of old age, the date appointed for the shooting party; 5. moonlit and cloudless, on a still night, to be in danger, to be cut short, to catch sight of, to snatch a short rest, a loud (sudden) report; 6. to come running, to take up, to draw (smb's) attention to, to find no trace of smth, the wrong animal, to die of heart failure; 7. to be annoyed at smth, at any rate, to be anxious for, to connive at the fiction that, to spread far and wide, as for; 8. to fall in with a suggestion, a dance party, to be amused, to frighten smb to death, the colour left her face, to give smb away; 9. I'd rather buy ..., quite a bargain, to manage to do smth; 10. to give up big-game shooting, incidental expenses, to confide smth to smb
IV. Make up disjunctive questions or wrong statements covering the contents of the story and ask your comrades to respond to them (see Unit One, Ex. IV, p. 22).
V. Answer the following questions:
1. Where is the scene set at the beginning (at the end) of the story? 2. Why did Mrs. Packletide wish to kill a tiger? 3. Why do you think she made up her mind to give a party in Loona Bimberton's honour? What did she intend to give Loona on her birthday? 4. How was the shooting party arranged? What kind of tiger was chosen for the purpose? In what way did the villagers help Mrs. Packletide shoot the tiger? 5. Who was Miss Mebbin? Was she really devoted to Mrs. Packletide? How did she behave during the shooting party? 6. Was Mrs. Packletide a good shot? What happened when she fired at the tiger? 7. Why did Miss Mebbin draw Mrs. Packle-tide's attention to the fact that the wrong animal had been killed by the rifle shot? How did the latter take the news? Did the villagers notice what had really happened? 8. Do you think Mrs. Packletide succeeded in revenging Loona Bimberton's achievements? 9. What suggestion was made to Mrs. Packletide a few days after the County Costume Ball? Why do you think Mrs. Packletide refused to fall in with the suggestion? 10. How did Miss Mebbin manage to get a week-end cottage? Why did she plant so many tiger lilies in her garden? 11. Why did Mrs. Packletide give up big-game shooting? 12. What is the author's attitude towards his characters? What traits of human nature does the author ridicule in the story?
VI. Find evidence in the text to support the following statements:
1. Mrs. Packletide was not a sportswoman, she had other reasons to go big-game shooting in India. 2. It was a stroke of luck for the villagers to have a wealthy lady shooting in the local jungle. 3. Mrs. Packletide's ambition was realized. 4. Miss Mebbin knew how to take advantage of Mrs. Packletide's confidence in her.
VII. Make up stories as they might have been told by:
a) Miss Mebbin: "How 1 helped Mrs. Packletide become popular." Suggested circumstances: Miss Mebbin doesn't like Mrs. Packletide and never misses a chance to make the most of her position as a paid companion.
b) The headman of the village: "We were lucky to get a chance to earn easy money."
Suggested circumstances: The headman of the village knows Mrs. Packletide is very rich and he is glad to get a chance to earn easy money. Besides he is sure there will be a lot of fun during the shooting party. Mrs. Packletide is no shot. He has to arrange everything so that she couldn't help but kill the tiger.
c) Mrs. Packletide: "My popularity was bought at too great a price."
Suggested circumstances: Mrs. Packletide is jealous of Loona's popularity and goes out of her way to surpass that lady's achievements. She does so but she has to pay too high a price for it.
VIII. Make up dialogues between:
1. Mrs. Packletide and the headman of the village. (They arrange for a shooting-party.)
2. Mrs. Packletide and her paid companion. (Miss Mebbin takes full advantage of Mrs. Packletide's mistake.)
3. Loona Bimberton and a lady-friend of hers. (Mrs. Packletide's success makes Loona furious.)
IX. Make up character-sketches of Mrs. Packletide and Miss Mebbin.
I. Translate the following sentences using the structural patterns:
1. У Джексона не было никакой надежды получить другую работу. 2. У него была неприятная привычка перебивать всех. 3. У нее не было намерения приглашать его на свой день рождения. 4. Мистер Каулишо рисковал погубить свою карьеру, если бы отказался сделать так, как хотела миссис Клауз. 5. Он как раз тот человек, который мне нужен. 6. Я не знаком с положением дел на сегодня. 7. Его отказ дать показания был основной причиной их ссоры. 8. Эвис выросла в обеспеченной семье, она была единственным ребенком, и, как она поняла позже, она ничего не знала о жизни. 9. Саша был единственным мальчиком в нашей группе.
II. Make up short situations suggested by the following sentences paying careful attention to the word combinations in bold type:
1. Miss Mebbin said: "I advise you to try to get that tiger's skin, it's not much of a risk." 2. Mrs. Packletide gave a sigh of relief when she saw that the tiger was dead. 3. The goat's bleeding wound caught Miss Mebbin's eye. 4. Mrs. Packletide was about to say that she would give Miss Mebbin a month's notice, but checked herself. 5. Mrs. Packletide was given to understand that her reputation was in danger. 6. Mrs. Packletide preferred to take nobody into her .confidence. 7. Rannoch's manners left much to be desired. 8. Mr. Cow-lishaw thought that if he fell in with Rannoch's scheme he would run the risk of sinning against professional etiquette. 9. Mrs. Clo-vves's great tooth horrified the dentist, but he was not going to give in. 10. Though the operation was successful Mr. Cowlishaw was unable to look Mrs. Clowes in the face. 11. "There's no risk of your being recognized," said Thacker. 12. Thacker flew into a rage and was about to give the Kid a piece of his mind when he stopped short: the Kid had taken out a revolver. 13. Thacker was so carried away by this scheme that it never occurred to him he could be outwitted. 14. Crane's disappearance gave rise to a lot of talk in the village. 15. A small flint in the machine caught Jackson's eye and he reached for it. 16. Colonel Ingram flushed as if he had been caught red-handed when Avis said that the evidence the foremen had given at the trial was false. 17. As Erik talked to the professor about his summer, Fox's indifference gave way to curiosity. 18. On the face of it Mrs. Thayer's invitation seemed wonderful, so Ben and his wife accepted it.
III. Translate the following sentences paying careful attention to the parts in bold type:
1. Музыка захватила аудиторию. В зале стояла полнейшая тишина. Никто не смел пошевельнуться. 2. Ему не хотелось огорчать ее, и он уступил, хотя был убежден, что она неправа. 3. Он получил предупреждение об увольнении за месяц. 4. Появление незнакомца в Айпинге вызвало много слухов. 5. Мне дали понять, что не было никакой надежды получить эту работу. 6. Он решил сделать это на свой собственный страх и риск. 7. Он дал мне понять, что не доверяет мне. 8. Не поддавайся отчаянию, всё не так плохо, как это тебе кажется. 9. Нет никакой опасности (риска) простудиться, если ты наденешь теплое пальто. 10. У Крейна было много соперников, и он не мог надеяться, что завоюет сердце Катрины, но он не хотел отступать. И. Миссис Паклтайд покраснела, как будто мисс Меббин застала ее на месте преступления. 12. Миссис Паклтайд не осмелилась дать мисс Меббин расчет, но она решила больше не доверяться ей. 13. Экспедиция попала в буран, и геологи вынуждены были провести ночь в маленькой хижине на берегу реки. 14. Ее доклад оставлял желать много лучшего. 15. Мое внимание привлекла книга в яркой обложке. 16. После ссоры он не мог смотреть ей в глаза. 17. Он никому не осмеливался доверять свои секреты. 18. На первый взгляд план консула был совершенно безопасным, и Малыш согласился. 19. Мать уходила на работу рано утром, и Джонни целый день был предоставлен самому себе. 20. Элиза не могла больше сдерживаться и дала волю слезам. 21. Грег произвел на Лотисса благоприятное впечатление, и тот решил довериться ему.
1. Популярность Луны Бимбертон росла с каждым днем, и это действовало миссис Паклтайд на нервы. Однако она не хотела, чтобы кто-нибудь думал, что она завидует Луне, и поэтому она решила дать обед в честь своей соперницы. 2. Миссис Паклтайд уже назначила день этого торжества, но еще не пригласила гостей, когда ей пришло в голову, что она тоже может добиться популярности (to gain popularity), если у нее в гостиной будет лежать шкура тигра, которого она убьет своими руками. Миссис Паклтайд так увлеклась этой мыслью, что не могла спокойно спать. Поэтому она сразу же отправилась в Индию. 3. И вот однажды ей сказали, что на опушке джунглей появился старый тигр. Он не охотился больше на крупного зверя, довольствуясь мелкими домашними животными. "Я советую Вам воспользоваться этим случаем и убить тигра. Попробуйте, Вы ничем не рискуете", - сказала мисс Меббин, ее компаньонка. - "Жители деревни помогут устроить это". 4. Миссис Паклтайд с радостью согласилась. Но в день охоты тигр исчез. Во всяком случае его нигде не могли обнаружить. Миссис Паклтайд была раздосадована.
IV. Read the sentences and explain the use of the synonyms to snatch, to seize, to grip:
1. Andrew reflected a minute, then started towards the hall to use the telephone. But as he reached it the instrument rang. He snatched it from the hook. 2. His quick eyes seemed to snatch the soul put of everyone he passed. 3. His quick eyes saw the letter on the floor I had accidentally let fall; his hand, as quick, snatched it up. 4. But he wasn't going to have his story snatched from under his very nose. 5. He will talk quickly and eagerly about nothing at all, snatching at any subject. 6. They were like hawks watching for an opportunity to snatch their prey from under the very claws of their opponents. 7. John seized her hand in gratitude, and they sat silent. 8. The heavy chair was in his way. He seized it and threw it across the room where it crashed into the sideboard. 9. Amelia seized the baby out of her mother's arms and made for the door, leaving the old lady gaping at her ... . 10. Bitter frosts gripped the town almost before the leaves had fallen from the trees. 11. A strong maternal impulse towards the other's weakness, gripped her ... 12. Seizing ink and writing-paper, she began to write as if she had no time to breathe before she got her letter written. 13. Something gripped him; he stood quite still, as though frozen into immobility. 14. He frowned at his paper pad for a few seconds. His face suddenly lightened, and I saw he had come to a decision: my hands gripped the arms of the chair as I waited to receive it. 15. I fell in love with Venice in that short half hour as we glided down the Grand Canal, even though I had seen almost nothing of her treasures yet. There was an atmosphere that gripped and held me. 16. The taxi moved off and she gripped her brother's arm as though to steady herself.
V. Read the story and retell it following the outline given below. Make a list of the words in the text to develop each point:
HIS WEDDED WIFE
After Rudyard Kipling
Even a worm will turn if you tread on it too severely. The safest plan is never to tread on a worm.
This is a story of the worm that turned.
In a regiment stationed at a little town in India there was a young officer whose name was Henry Augustus Ramsay Faizanne. For the sake of brevity we shall call him the Worm, though he really was an exceedingly pretty boy, without a hair on his face, and with a waist like a girl's. In that regiment one had to do things well - play a banjo, or ride more than little, or sing, or act - to get on with the officers.
The Worm did nothing except fall off his pony and knock chips out of gate-posts with his trap. He objected to whist, cut the cloth at billiards, sang out of tune, kept very much to himself and wrote to his Mamma and sisters at Home. Four of these five things were
vices which the officers of the regiment objected to and set themselves to eradicate.
Everyone played jokes on the Worm, but he bore everything without winking. He was so good and so anxious to learn, and flushed so pink, that his education was cut short, and he was left to his own devices by every one except the Senior Lieutenant, who continued to make life a burden to the Worm. The Senior Lieutenant meant no harm; but his jokes were coarse and he didn't quite understand where to stop. He had been waiting too long for promotion; and that is always bad for a man. Also he was in love, which mad him worse.
One day after he had been extremely unpleasant to the Worm, the Worm rose in his place and said, in his quiet lady-like voice, "That was a very pretty joke, but I bet you a month's pay that when you get your promotion I'll play a joke on you that you'll remember for the rest of your days, and the Regiment after you when you're dead or broke."
The Worm wasn't angry in the least, and the rest of the officers shouted with laughter. Then the Senior Lieutenant looked at the Worm from the boots upward, and down again, and said - "Done, Baby."
Two months passed. The Senior Lieutenant had just become a captain and his girl had at last made up her mind to accept him.
One night, at the beginning of the hot weather, the officers, except the Worm, who had gone to his own room to write Home letters, were sitting on the platform outside the Mess House. The Band had finished playing, but no one wanted to go in. And the officers' wives were there too. The Senior Lieutenant had been holding forth on the merits of the girl he was engaged to, and the ladies were purring approval while the men yawned, when there was a rustle of skirts in the dark, and a tired, faint voice was heard, "Where's my husband?" Then the voice cried, "O Lionel!" Lionel was the Senior Lieutenant's name. A woman came into the little circle of light made by the candle on the table, sobbing, and stretching out her hands to the dark where the Senior Lieutenant was sitting. We rose to our feet, feeling that things were going to happen and ready to believe the worst ...
The woman from nowhere, in the dusty shoes and grey travelling-dress, was very lovely, with black hair and great eyes full of tears. She was tall, with a fine figure and her voice had a running sob in it, pitiful to hear. As soon as the Senior Lieutenant stood up, she threw her arms round his neck, and called him "my darling", and said she could not bear waiting alone in England, and his letters were so short and cold, and she was his to the end of the world, and would he forgive her for coming out to India? This did not sound quite like a lady's way of speaking. It was too demonstrative.
Things seemed black indeed, and the officers' wives peered under their eyebrows at the Senior Lieutenant. The Colonel's face was grim and no one spoke for a while.
Then the Colonel said very shortly, "Well, Sir?" and the woman sobbed afresh. The Senior Lieutenant was half choked with the arms around his neck, but he gasped out - "It's a damned lie; I never had a wife in my life!"
"Don't swear," said the Colonel. "Come into the Mess. We must sift this clear somehow," and he sighed to himself, for he believed in his officers, did the Colonel.
We trooped into the hall, and there, under the full lights, we saw how beautiful the woman was. She stood up in the middle of us, sometimes choking with repressed tears, then hard and proud, and then holding out her arms to the Senior Lieutenant. It was like the fourth act of a tragedy. She told us how the Senior Lieutenant had married her when he was Home on leave eighteen months before; and she seemed to know all that we knew, and more too, of his people and his past life. He was white and ash-grey, trying now and again to break into the torrent of her words; and we, noting how lovely she was and what a criminal he looked, thought him a beast of the worst kind. We felt sorry for him, though.
The officers' wives stood back; but their eyes were alight and you could see they had already convicted and sentenced the Senior Lieutenant. The Colonel seemed five years older. One Major was shading his eyes with his hand and watching the woman from underneath it. Another was chewing his moustache and smiling quietly, as if he were witnessing a play. There was a look of horror on the Senior Lieutenant's face.
Finally the woman ended up by saying that the Senior Lieutenant carried a tattoo on his left shoulder. We all knew that and to our innocent minds it seemed to complete the matter. But one of the bachelor Majors said very politely, "I presume that your marriage-certificate would be more to the purpose?"
That roused the woman. She called the Senior Lieutenant a dog and abused the Major and the Colonel and the rest. Then she wept, and then she pulled a paper from her breast and said, "Take that! And let my husband - my lawfully wedded husband - read ft aloud - if he dare!"
There was a hush as the Senior Lieutenant came forward and took the paper. His throat was dry; but as he ran his eyes over the paper, he broke into hoarse laughter and said to the woman, "You young blackguard!"
But the woman had fled through a door, and on the paper was written, "This is to certify that I, the Worm, have paid in full my debt to the Senior Lieutenant, and further, that the Senior Lieutenant is my debtor. According to the agreement made on the 23d of February he owes me one month's captain's pay."
I think most of the officers and their wives were a little disappointed that the scandal had come to nothing. But that is human nature.
There could be no two words about the Worm's acting. It was certainly his strong point. He was made President of the dramatic
club. And when the Senior Lieutenant paid up his debt, which he did at once, the Worm used the money to buy costumes and scenery.
He was a good Worm, and the regiment was proud of him.
The only drawback was that he was christened "Mrs. Senior Lieutenant"; and, as there were two Mrs. Senior Lieutenants in the Station, this was sometimes confusing to strangers.
1. The officers of the regiment find that Henry Ramsay, or the Worm, cannot do things well and set about educating him.
2. The Senior Lieutenant makes life a burden to the Worm.
3. The Worm loses patience and makes up his mind to revenge himself on the Senior Lieutenant.
4. A beautiful woman whom no one knows appears one evening at the regimental headquarters. She says she is the Senior Lieutenant's wife and tells them a touching story.
5. The Senior Lieutenant goes through some most unpleasant moments before things are cleared up.
6. The Worm is made President of the dramatic club.
VI. Make up situations based on the story "His Wedded Wife" using the following word combinations:
to leave much to be desired; to be left to oneself; to confide one's troubles to smb; to be given to understand; it was not much of a risk; to give smb a piece of one's mind; (not) to give way to despair; to give rise to a lot of talk and laughter; to appoint a date for smth; to give way to utter surprise; to be unable to look smb in the face; to give a sigh of relief; at any rate; to spread far and wide; to be caught red-handed; on the face of it; to confide one's secret to smb
VII. Render into English:
ДЯДЯ ПОДЖЕР ЗА РАБОТОЙ
Дядя Поджер (Uncle Podger) решил повесить картину, которую только что доставили из магазина. Все домашние пытались отговорить его от этой затеи. "Послушай, Поджер, ты рискуешь сломать себе шею, наша кухонная лестница очень старая, она сломается". Но дядя Поджер не слушал. Он так увлекся этой мыслью, что никто не мог его остановить.
"Ну, хорошо, делай это на свой собственный страх и риск. Мы не будем помогать тебе калечиться", - сказала тетя Энн. Ей очень хотелось отругать его (сказать ему пару теплых слов), но она сдержалась. С ним было трудно договориться (иметь дело). Он всегда поступал по-своему.
Некоторое время дядя Поджер не мог вбить гвоздь (to drive in a nail), но он продолжал работу и не сдавался. Вдруг тетя Энн испуганно вскрикнула. Лестница подалась под его тяжестью, и дядя Поджер упал бы, если бы тетя Энн не пришла ему на помощь.
1. Мистер и миссис Грег пригласили известного художника, Лотисса (Lautisse), провести субботу и воскресенье у них за городом. Так случилось, что Лотисс ради забавы побелил у них забор вокруг сада. Тогда Греги не знали, что из этого выйдет.
2. На следующий день в одной из местных газет появилась заметка о том, что знаменитый французский художник Лотисс гостил у Грегов. Это сообщение наделало много шума. Оказалось, что Лотисс никогда в своей жизни не пользовался белой краской; к тому же, о нем давно ничего не было слышно. Толпы газетчиков и репортеров осаждали (to besiege) дом мистера Грега. Они фотографировали и забор, и ведро, и кисть. Они задавали мистеру и миссис Грег всевозможные вопросы. Некоторые из них требовали, чтобы Греги немедленно продали забор. Один репортер был особенно невыносим. Он торчал около их дома целый день, не оставляя их ни на минуту в покое. Миссис Грег не выдержала и расплакалась. "Как они смеют вмешиваться в нашу жизнь!" - воскликнула она.
Мистер Грег также был зол. Ему хотелось сказать репортеру пару теплых слов, но он не мог позволить себе такой роскоши. "Послушайте, господа, его работа оставляет желать много лучшего. Всякий мог бы так побелить забор", - повторял мистер Грег. Но репортеры не сдавались. Они твердили, что это настоящий шедевр.
3. "Не предавайтесь отчаянию", - сказал Герстон, их сосед, когда они поделились с ним своими неприятностями. "Выставите забор в какой-нибудь картинной галерее. Вы ничем не рискуете". На первый взгляд, эта мысль показалась абсурдной. Выставить обыкновенный деревянный забор в картинной галерее? Нелепость какая-то! Неужели мир сходит с ума?! Однако, когда Герстон дал им понять, что они могут нажить на этом состояние, они согласились.
4. Как это ни странно, забор был принят самой лучшей галереей в городе. Мистеру Грегу было страшно неловко, когда он увидел свой забор на самом видном месте в главном зале галереи. Он густо покраснел, как будто его поймали на месте преступления. Он пробормотал: "Я покрасил бы забор лучше". Когда он поднял голову, он встретился взглядом с Герстоном, и тот не мог удержаться от смеха.
VIII. Read the following sentences and suggest Russian equivalents for the parts in bold type:
1. A man stood b.y the window. He must have caught sight of me, because he drew back abruptly. 2. He must have got caught in the rain and be sheltering somewhere in the grounds. 3. As a matter of fact he looked distinctly annoyed, but I insisted on his accompanying me back to the hotel. 4. Мог thought it quite likely that it was Demoyte's rudeness that had driven Miss Carter away, and he felt annoyed with Demoyte. 5. Colonel Arbuthnot was clearly annoyed at being summoned for a second interview. 6. Nan did not know what to do. The idea of confiding in one of her women friends was inconceivable. 7. The great interest between us was, of course, Jason, but in addition he took me more and more into his confidence. 8. I noticed that she wore no wedding ring, carrying in its pla:e a large opal. "I see you are wondering about my opal," she said suddenly, catching my eye. 9. As I wandered across the lawn to the terrace, my eye was caught by a gleam of sunshine on something metal. 10. But suddenly he paused, his eye caught by a cardboard folder which lay on top of the case. 11. He gave a little laugh as he said the last words and quickly walked out of the room. 12. Мог reached the top of the staircase and pulled at the handle of the door. He gave a cry of despair. It was locked. 13. "He should never have come here," he said. "He knew the complications his return would give rise to." 14. He gave me to understand that he was the only person who knows how to deal with her. 15. The door gave way and they all stepped into the shop, and stood still while Tom turned on a light. 16. Philip was prepared to give way to his emotion, but the matter-of-fact reception startled him. 17. She knew it would be better if she could stop being analytical and give way to her emotions. 18. The only thing now was to leave the rooms, and he made up his mind to give notice the next morning. 19. At first Jose refused to touch these unusual delicacies but, seeing disappointment in Nickolas's eyes, he gave in. 20. "I have my newly hired car outside, so I won't be running the risk of meeting your friend at the railway station." 21. "Look here, Henry, we've known one another all our lives. Be honest with met Can you look me in the face and tell me you believe it's a true story?" 22. We all of us agree, that on the face of it the thing's absurd, out of the question. 23. She cut short a flowery phrase of apology from M. Boue. 24. He was fairly sure that Mr. White had simply been carried away by enthusiasm on a favourite topic and had not intended to attack him personally.
*In doing this exercise use both English-English and English-Russian dictionaries, preferably, "The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English" by A. S. Hornby, "New English-Russian Dictionary" edited by Prof. I. R. Galperin.