Both Jackson and Peter Donnelly speak an illiterate English. Note the following non-standard forms which occur in the text:

a) I ain't for callin' it that

The form ain't is used for the following: am not, is .not, are not, have not, has not.

b) ... workin' steady for hours.

The adjective steady replaces the adverb steadily.

c) a-given, a-ben, a-got

The forms are used instead of have given, have been, have got.

d) in them mills

The personal pronoun them is used instead of the demonstrative pronoun these, those or the definite article.

e) ... most of the accidents happens ...

Agreement between the subject and the predicate is violated.

f) callin', workin'

The omission of the final g in spelling indicates that [n] is pronounced instead of [n] at the end of the words.

g) an', 'em

The omission of d in and and th in them shows the omission of the corresponding sounds in pronunciation.

These improprieties of speech - non-standard pronunciation, improper grammatical forms - are used by the author to give his characters definite speech characteristics. They show the characters' vocation, their education, environment and even their psychology. Only typical non-standard forms are used for this purpose.


1. Happen, seem + Infinitive

How did you happen to get your arm caught in the machine?

Jackson seems to have been badly treated.

The verbs to happen and to seem may be followed by any kind of infinitive.

The indefinite infinitive expresses an action simultaneous with the moment described in the sentence.

The young farmer seemed to know everything about Miss Posie's family. Казалось, что молодой фермер знает всё о семье мисс Поузи.

The continuous infinitive emphasizes that the action expressed by the infinitive is in process.


I first met her in Wisconsin. Я впервые встретила ее в Висконсине.
I happened to be staying with my relatives there. Так случилось, что я гостила там у своих родственников.
He seems to be enjoying his holidays here. Он, как будто (кажется), с удовольствием проводит здесь каникулы.

The perfect infinitive expresses an action prior to the moment referred to in the sentence.

Nobody knew the man, but when I saw him I recognized him at once. I happened to have worked with him in the North. Никто не знал этого человека, но когда я его увидела, я его сразу узнала. Я когда-то работала с ним на севере.
They seem to have met before. Они, кажется, встречались раньше.

2. Might + Perfect Infinitive

They might have given me a watchman's job.

Might have done expresses disapproval or reproach. The perfect infinitive refers the action to the past.

You might have warned me in advance (but you didn't). I wouldn't have waited for you. Ты мог бы предупредить меня заранее. Я бы не стал тебя ждать.

Note: When might is followed by an indefinite infinitive, the combination might do smth expresses a request with a shade of reproach and refers the action to the present or future.

You might at least drive me home. Вы хотя бы отвезли меня домой.
You might carry the parcel for me. Мог бы понести мой сверток.

3. Should + Infinitive

Не agreed with Peter Donnelly that Jackson should have won his case and got damages.

The modal verb should expresses obligation, advisability, desirability. It may be followed by any kind of infinitive.

Should + indefinite infinitive refers the action to the present or the future.

You should take tha visitors round the museum. Вам надо (следует) показать гостям музей.

Should + continuous infinitive refers the action to the immediate present.

You should be reading your history instead of watching TV. Тебе надо (следует) заниматься историей, а не смотреть телевизор.


Should + perfect infinitive refers the action to the past.

You should have accepted the invitation (but you didn't). Вам надо было бы принять его приглашение. '
You shouldn't have accepted his invitation (but you did). Вам не надо было бы принимать его приглашение.

Note: The modal verbs should and ought (to) are very much alike in meaning. In many cases they are used interchangeably. However, ought to emphasizes moral obligation, whereas should is commonly used when instructions are given in the form of advice.

You ought to be grateful to her. Вы должны быть благодарны ей.
You ought to be helping your mother, Jane. She is washing up. Тебе следовало бы помочь маме, Джейн. Она моет посуду.
You ought to have apologized to her. Вам надо было бы извиниться перед ней.
You shouldn't miss this opportunity. Вам не следует упускать такую возможность.
You should have put more sugar in the cake. В торт следовало бы положить больше сахара.


1. But I tremble for you when I think ...

//to tremble for smb - feel anxious on srnb's account - опасаться за кого-л.//

To tremble, to shake, to shiver and to shudder need to be distinguished when they mean to move quickly or vibrate. They correspond to the Russian дрожать, трястись, содрогаться.

To shake vi is the general term. It may imply any kind of state which is not firm or steady. To shake may refer to both persons and things.

He shook with fear (cold). Он трясся от страха (холода).
The earth shook under us. Под нами дрожала земля.

То tremble vi means to shake with agitation, fear, anger, cold, physical weakness. It implies a slight, not very noticeable motion.

Her lips trembled and she could not trust herself to speak. У нее дрожали губы, и она не решалась говорить.
She stood at the door, her whole body trembling with fear. Она стояла у двери и вся дрожала от страха.
His voice trembled with indignation. Его голос дрожал от негодования.

То shiver vi means to shake with a rapid vibrating movement, esp because of cold or fear.

He came into the house snow-covered and shivering. Он вошел в дом весь в снегу, дрожа от холода.


To shudder vi means to experience sudden shivering due to fear, horror, repugnunce or cold. To shudder is usually the action of a moment and is stronger than to shiver.

She shuddered at the sight of blood. Она содрогнулась при виде крови.
I shuddered to think what might happen. Я содрогнулась, когда подумала, что может произойти.

2. I asked him if hehad broken some rule of working the machinery.

to break vt - fail to keep or obey - нарушать

to break a law, a rule, one's word, silence, etc

Kemp was the first to break the silence. Кемп первым нарушил молчание.
She never broke her word. Она никогда не нарушала своего слова.

to break vi - begin - начинаться, наступать

Day was breaking when we went out. Рассветало, когда мы вышли.
A heavy storm was about to break. Надвигался шторм.

to break down

a) fail to act, become useless - сломаться, разрушиться, выйти из строя

The machinery broke down Машина сломалась (вышла из строя).

b) become weak and ill (of health) - ухудшаться, сдавать (о здоровье)

His health broke down. У него ухудшилось здоровье.

to break out - begin suddenly (of fire, war, epidemic, strike) - вспыхивать, разражаться

A fire broke out during the night. Ночью вспыхнул пожар.
The quarrel broke out afresh. Ссора вспыхнула вновь.

3. He was unable to earn ... sufficient food for his family.

to be (un)able to do smth - (not) have the power, ability, means or opportunity to do smth - (не) быть в состоянии (в силах) что-л. сделать

Will you be able to come today? Вы сможете прийти сегодня (у вас есть такая возможность)?
You are better able to do it than I am. Вы можете сделать это лучше, чем я.
Are you able -to walk another two miles? Вы в состоянии пройти еще две мили? '
He was unable to think clearly at the moment. В этот момент он был не в состоянии ясно мыслить.


to be (in)capable of doing smth - (not) have the power, ability or fitness - быть (не) способным на что-л., сделать что-л.

Не is quite capable of neglecting his duty (is the sort of man who might do so). Он может пренебречь своим долгом (он способен на. это).
In those days only Filatov was capable of performing such delicate operations. В то время только Филатов был способен делать такие сложные операции.
Show me what you are capable of (how well you can work). Покажи, на что ты способен.

The difference between (un)able to do and (in)capable of doing is that the first word combination describes the state of things in a certain situation, whereas to be (in)capable of (not) doing stresses a person's fitness for doing something.

He was unable to come as he was busy. Он не мог прийти, он был занят.
The boy can't have told a lie. He is incapable of lying. Не может быть, чтобы мальчик солгал. Он не способен на ложь.
At that moment Bill felt he was capable of murder. В этот момент Билл почувствовал, что он способен на убийство.

4. The witnesses had given only the evidence that helped the other side.

witness n - a person who has first-hand knowledge of an event and is able to describe it; also, one who gives evidence under oath in a law-court - свидетель

Tom was the -only witness to (of) the crime. Том был единственным свидетелем преступления.
He appeared in court as a witness. Он появился в суде в качестве свидетеля.

5. Jackson had been confused by Colonel Ingram, who was brilliant at cross-examination

to be brilliant (good, clever, skilful, poor, slow) at smth or doing smth

Some adjectives take an object expressed by a noun or a gerund with the preposition at.

My friend is good at phonetics. У моей подруги хорошо идет (ей дается) фонетика.
Jerome thought he was good at packing things. Джером думал, что он хорошо умеет упаковывать вещи.
1 am afraid 1 am no good at solving cross-word puzzles. Боюсь, что я совершенно не умею решать кроссворды.


Note: To be good (quick, slow) at doing something expresses a permanent characteristic feature of a person; to be slow (quick) in doing something characterizes a person's action in a given situation.

Dennis was quick in seeing the joke. Деннис сразу понял шутку.
He was slow in taking the hint. Он не сразу понял намек.

After the adjectives quick and slow we often find an infinitive instead of the gerund.

Dennis was quick to see the joke. He was slow to take the hint.

6. Why did you not call attention to the fact that...

to call (smb's) attention to smth - show; point out; cause smb to notice - обратить (чье-л.) внимание на что-л.

I'd like to call your attention to the following facts. Мне бы хотелось обратить ваше внимание на следующие факты.
He called my attention to a group of students and said: "They've come to help us." Он обратил мое внимание на группу студентов и сказал: "Они пришли помочь нам".

to pay attention to - give one's mind to - обращать (свое) внимание на что-л., на кого-л.

Не paid no attention to her words. Он не обратил никакого внимания на ее слова.
Pay attention to what is being said. Слушайте, что сейчас говорят.

to attract (smb's) attention - make people notice one; arouse interest - привлекать чье-л. внимание

I shouted to attract attention. Я крикнул, чтобы привлечь к себе внимание.
Suddenly my attention was attracted by a strange-looking man. Вдруг мое внимание привлек человек странной наружности.

7. Jackson was trying to save the machinery from being damaged.

to damage vt - make less useful or valuable (applied mostly to things) - повредить

The car was badly damaged in a crash. Машина была сильно повреждена при столкновении.

damage n (uncountable) - вред, ущерб, убыток, урон

to do (cause) damage to - нанести, причинить ущерб чему-л.

The storm did great damage to the port. Шторм произвел большие разрушения (нанес большой ущерб) в порту.
The fire caused no damage to the pictures. Пожар не причинил вреда картинам.


8. ... that Jackson should have got damages.

//damages n pl (legal) money that is paid in compensation for a loss or injury - убытки, компенсация за убытки to claim damages - взыскивать убытки

  • to pay smb damages - возмещать кому-л. убытки
  • to get damages - получать компенсацию за убытки
  • to bring a suit for damages or to sue smb for damages возбудить дело о возмещении убытков//

9. I testified to the effect that Jackson injured himself by neglect and carelessness.

to injure vt - hurt; do or cause harm or damage to - ушибить, ранить; повредить

Nobody was injured in the accident. Никто не пострадал в аварии.
He injured his knee playing football. Он ушиб колено, играя в футбол.
The fruit was injured by hail. Фрукты пострадали от града.

//injury п - a wound, a hurt; harm, Damage - ушиб, рана; повреждение//

10. ... the company was in no way to blame.

to be to blame (for smth) - быть виноватым в чем-л.

Who is to blame for the accident? Кто виноват в аварии?
He is in no way to blame. Он ни в коей мере не виноват.

to blame smb for smth - fix on smb the responsibility for smth - обвинять, порицать, винить кого-л. за что-л.

You should not blame him for what had happened. Вам не следует винить его в том, что произошло.
I have nothing to blame myself for. Мне не в чем себя упрекнуть.


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