1. Here is the scheme he hit on:

The verb to hit upon (on) here means to find by chance, come upon.

The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English edited by A. S. Hornby registers this meaning together with five other1" comprising the semantic structure of the verb to hit.


A comparison of the meanings within the semantic structure of the verb may give an idea of different types of meaning. So far no general or complete scheme of types of meaning has been accepted by linguists. However, some terms seem to be more commonly employed in books than others.

The first meaning of the verb to hit - to give a blow, a stroke to is generally termed the direct meaning as it names the action itself and can be understood without the help of a context, in isolation.

Meanings 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, unlike the first one, are bound by the context, although they are somewhat dependent on the first meaning. These are derivative meanings.

  • to be hit by financial losses - to suffer from ...
  • to hit the right path - to find ...
  • to hit upon the right answer - to suddenly find the correct solution

From the point of view of frequency of occurrence in speech one can distinguish basic meaning (the most frequent one) and minor meanings (less frequent ones).

The importance of distinguishing different types of meaning in learning and teaching a foreign language can't be overlooked. At the initial stage of language learning, the direct and most frequent meanings are usually taken into consideration, while at a more advanced level attention is paid to derivative and less frequent meanings.

It is the derivative meanings of the verbs to hit, to strike and to stick that are dealt with in the vocabulary of Unit Four.

2. ... an awfully pretty melody ...

Awfully in this phrase is a colloquial variant of the neutral adverb very.

Colloquialisms make up a special layer in the English vocabulary as opposed to neutral and literary words.

The majority of colloquial words and set-up expressions have synonyms in the neutral layer of the vocabulary, e.g. kid -child; daddy - father; go on - continue; get out - go away; just a bit - very little.

As compared with their neutral synonyms colloquialisms haVe a definite emotional colouring which makes them very expressive.


1. Would + Infinitive in Simple Sentences ... it would be very hard for him to rest there in the city.

In simple sentences would + indefinite or perfect infinitive generally denotes an unreal action (the Analytical Subjunctive). The indefinite infinitive refers the action to the present or future, the perfect infinitive - to the past.

You would not have me in the house, I'd be very irritable. Вы бы не потерпели меня у себя в доме, я был бы очень раздражительным.


A month ago I would have doubted the truth of the story. Месяц назад я бы усомнился в правдивости этой истории.

Note: the phrases I should (would) think (have thought), I should (would) say (have said) are common and are generally used to lend the sentence a milder and more polite form. Their use in this case differs from the use of the Indicative Mood only stylistically.

"I should think," said Mrs. Thayer, "it would be very hard for . him to rest there in the city." "Я полагаю, - сказала миссис Тейер, там в городе ему было бы трудно отдохнуть".
"How long did you wait?" - "I would say a good five minutes." "Сколько времени вы ждали?" - "Пожалуй (я бы сказал), не менее пяти минут".

2. Need + Infinitive

Не needn't tell anybody where he is.

The modal verb need denoting necessity is used only in negative and interrogative sentences. The time reference of the action is shown by the form of the infinitive.

The indefinite infinitive refers the action to the present; the per--fect infinitive refers it to the past.

Need + perfect infinitive expresses an action which has been performed though it was not necessary. It implies a waste of time and effort.

You needn't switch off the radio, I'm not going to read. Можете не выключать радио. Я не собираюсь читать.
Need you be so irritable? Стоит ли так раздражаться?
You needn't have bought the book (but you did). It is available at the library. Вам не надо было бы покупать эту книгу. Она есть в библиотеке.
You needn't have sent us the - telegram (but you did). We knew you were coming on Friday. Не стоило (не надо было) присылать нам телеграмму. Мы знали, что вы возвращаетесь в пятницу.

Note: Didn't have to do smth shows that the action did not take place .in the past because it was unnecessary.

I didn't have to buy the book as I had it at home. Мне не пришлось (не надо было) покупать эту книгу, так как она была у меня дома.
I didn't have to send them a telegram for they knew I was coming on Friday. Мне не пришлось (не надо было) посылать им телеграмму, потому что они знали, что я приезжаю в пятницу.


1. I admitted that he was bothered a lot"

... that you won't be disturbed at all.


to bother vt - do or say something which attracts a person's attention and does not let him do what he wants to do or must do - надоедать, докучать, беспокоить

Tell the children to stop bothering their father. Don't bother me with silly questions. Скажи детям, чтобы они перестали надоедать отцу. Не приставай ко мне с глупыми вопросами.

То disturb - break up a state of calm, order, quiet or rest - нарушать ход, движение, порядок, равновесие и т. п.; выводить из состояния покоя

The sharp cry of an owl disturbed the silence of the night. Громкий крик совы нарушил тишину ночи.
Tell him not to disturb the papers on my desk. Скажи ему, чтобы он не трогал бумаги на моем столе.
The news from home disturbed his peace of mind. Вести из дома вывели его из душевного равновесия.

In some cases the two verbs may be used interchangeably.

I'm sorry to disturb (bother) you. Простите, что мешаю вам (беспокою вас).
I don't want to be disturbed (bothered) until ten. Я не хочу, чтобы меня беспокоили раньше десяти.

2. ... and try to get in touch with him

touch n - communication - общение, связь, контакт

to get in touch with smb - связаться с кем-л.

to be (keep) in touch (with smb, smth) - be in regular communication with, receiving information about - общаться, поддерживать связь (с кем-л.); быть в курсе событий

to be out of (lose) touch (with smb, smth) - не общаться, потерять связь (с кем-л.); не быть в курсе событий

Old James Forsyte wanted to be in touch with what was going on in the family; but nobody told him anything, he said. Старый Джеймс Форсайт хотел быть в курсе событий, происходивших в семье; но никто ничего не говорил ему, жаловался он.
We must keep in touch with the political situation. Мы должны быть в курсе всех политических событий.
Keep in touch while I'm away. Не теряй со мной связи во время моего отсутствия.
I'm out of touch with most of my schoolfriends. Я потеряла связь с большинством своих школьных товарищей.
If we correspond regularly we shan't lose touch. Если мы будем регулярно переписываться, мы не потеряем связи друг с другом.


3. "It's settled then," said Mrs. Thayer.

to settle vt & i

a) make an agreement about; decide; determine - решать, принимать решение

That settles the matter. Это решает дело.
Nothing is settled yet. Ничего еще не решено.
It's time you settled the dispute (argument). Пора уже прекратить спор.
You ought to settle this question once and for all. Вам следует решить этот вопрос раз и навсегда.

b) make one's home in; live in (usu permanently) - поселиться, обосноваться

They settled in London. Они обосновались в Лондоне.
He retired and settled in the country. Он ушел на. пенсию и поселился в деревне.

4. "If they stick to their promise ..."

to stick to smth - hold to something, not leave or change or give up - быть верным чему-л.; держаться чего-л.; не отвлекаться, не отклоняться от чего-л.

You must stick to (keep) your promises. Вы должны придерживаться своих обещаний.
"I stick to my opinion," said Higgins, "that the girl has been taught English by an expert." "Я держусь своего мнения, что девушку обучал говорить по-английски какой-нибудь специалист", - сказал Хиггинс.
He stuck to the story. Он держался своей версии (повторял одно и тоже).
Strange as it might seem, Tom stuck to the task (continued to work at it) until it was finished. Может показаться странным, но Том не отрывался от работы, пока не закончил ее.

to stick together (colloq.) (of persons) - remain loyal or friendly to one another - держаться вместе, быть верным

Friends should stick together. Друзья должны держаться вместе.

to stick (in) (also in the passive) - be or become fixed; unable to move; fail to work properly - застревать, завязать

The key stuck in the lock(could not be turned or withdrawn). Ключ застрял (не поворачивался) в замке.
The bus (was) stuck in the m.ud. Машина завязла в грязи.
The door has stuck (as the result of being freshly painted). Дверь заело (не открывалась).


Note: With reference to people the verb to stick in this meaning is used only in passive constructions or in combinations with ithe verbs to get, to become.

We're stuck in the lift. Мы застряли в лифте.
Don't get stuck in the bog. Смотрите, не завязните в болоте.

5. Irene's telegram will provide us with an easy way out.

to provide smb with smth - снабжать, обеспечивать кого-л. чем-л.

We were provided with enough food to last two weeks. Нас снабдили едой на две недели,

to provide for smth - содержать, обеспечивать

Mr. Micawber could not provide for his large family. Мистер Микобер не мог содержать (обеспечить) свою семью.
The family was provided for in his will. Он обеспечил свою семью в своем завещании.

6. ... that I can afford to waste one (a tune)

a) to afford to do (usu with can, could) - be in a position to do smth, run a risk by doing smth - позволить себе сделать что-л.

Не couldn't afford to neglect his duties. Он не мог позволить себе пренебрегать своими обязанностями.
I can afford to speak freely. Я могу позволить себе высказываться откровенно.

b) to afford smth, to do smth (usu with can, could) - spare or find enough time or money for - иметь возможность, быть в состоянии, позволить себе что-л.

I can't afford such an expensive present (a journey). Я не могу позволить себе (мне не по средствам) такой дорогой подарок (путешествие).
Now Martin could afford to go to the theatre as often as he wished. Теперь Мартин мог позволить себе ходить в театр, когда ему хотелось.

7. There were comfortable twin beds with a small stand and convenient reading lamp between.

comfortable a

a) giving comfort to the body - удобный, комфортабельный

He sank into a soft comfortable arm-chair. Он погрузился в мягкое, удобное кресло.
They had a very comfortable apartment. У них была комфортабельная квартира.


b) (used predic.) be at ease, free from pain, anxiety-довольный, спокойный; не испытывающий неудобства.

Не is never comfortable except in his own home. Ему везде неудобно, кроме своего дома.
Do you feel comfortable? Вам удобно?

convenient a - handy; saving trouble or difficulty, easy to get to or at - удобный, подходящий

Will it be convenient for you to start work tomorrow? Вам удобно начать работу завтра?
The bus service here is very convenient. Здесь очень удобное автобусное сообщение.
We must arrange a convenient time and place for the meeting. Мы должны договориться об удобном месте и времени проведения собрания.

Syn: suitable - right for the purpose or occasion - подходящий, соответствующий, годный

These boots are not suitable for such rainy weather. Эти ботинки не годятся для такой дождливой погоды.
Г think a good watch would be the most suitable present for him. Я думаю, что хорошие часы были бы самым подходящим подарком для него.

"Thus, convenient means saving trouble or difficulty by taking into account the circumstances of the individual, while, suitable means correct for the occasion or purpose.

8. I'm sorry it doesn't agree with me.

to agree with smb, smth - be good for; suit the health of (often in negative sentences) - быть полезным, подходящим

to disagree with smb, smth - be unsuitable; have a bad effect pn - быть противопоказанным, вредным; оказывать плохое действие

Flying by plane does not agree with me. Я плохо переношу самолет.
I must have eaten something that disagreed with my liver. Я, должно быть, съел что-то, что плохо подействовало на мою печень.
The climate here does not agree (disagrees) with him. Этот климат для него вреден (противопоказан ему).

9. You wouldn't have me in the house

I can't have guests providing their own cigarets

to have (in the infinitive only and always, stressed) - allow, endure, put up with - позволять, допускать, терпеть


one won't (can't) have smb, smth (in a place)

one won't (can't) have smb do (doing) smth

I can't have you here until my guests leave. Я не могу вас принять, пока не уедут мои гости.
I won't have such conduct. Я не могу допустить такого поведения.
I won't have dogs in my house. Я не потерплю собак в своем доме.
I won't have you say/saying such things about my sister. Я не допущу, чтобы вы говорили подобные вещи о моей сестре.
I won't have those reporters ringing up and asking questions. Я не допущу (не позволю), чтобы эти репортеры звонили мне и задавали вопросы.

10. You may as well get used to them because you'll have to smoke them.

May (might) as well expresses intention when used with the first person, and suggestion or recommendation when used with the 2nd and 3rd persons.

I might as well go there today. Пожалуй, лучше будет, если я пойду туда сегодня.
We may as well begin at once. Мы вполне (с таким же успехом) можем начать сразу.
"I'll talk to him tomorrow." - "That's far too late. You might just as well not speak to him at all." "Я поговорю с ним завтра". - "Это слишком поздно. С таким же успехом можно вовсе не говорить с ним".
You might as well throw your money away. Вы могли бы с равным успехом выкинуть свои деньги.

11. Ben favoured me with a stricken look.

  • stricken a - affected by something - пораженный
  • Stricken is often found as part of compound adjectives, such as:
  • horror-stricken, terror-stricken - объятый (охваченный) ужасом,
  • panic-stricken - охваченный паникой
  • to strike vt - have an effect upon the mind, to impress abruptly or freshly - поражать, производить впечатление; казаться
How does his plan strike you? - It does not strike me as being original. Какое у вас впечатление от его плана? (Как он вам кажется?) - Он не кажется мне оригинальным.
... and then her helplessness struck me as pitiable and my anger subsided. ... но потом ее беспомощность показалась мне достойной жалости, и мой гнев прошел.
What struck me most was that he was not telling the truth. Больше всего меня поразило, что он говорит неправду.


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