COMMENTARY

NOTES

1. ... he asked her to step in, and in she stepped.

... when I count three, out it will come.

This is a case of stylistic inversion used by the author as a means of emphasis. It is called partial inversion as only part of the predicate group - an adverbial modifier of place - is put before the subject and not the predicate itself.

Full inversion occurs, when the subject is expressed by a noun, not a pronoun, e. g. In went Mr. Pickwick.

2. He laughed. But it was a hysterical laugh.

The verb laugh and the noun laugh have an identical phonetic and graphic form, but they differ in meaning (one denotes an action, while the other - the result of the action) and in the paradigms: laugh - laughs, laughed, laughing laugh - laughs

The word-building process in which words are formed by means of changing the paradigm is called conversion.

Conversion is highly productive in creating nouns from verbs (to talk - a talk, to cut - a cut, to walk - a walk) and verbs from nouns (a button - to button, paper - to paper).

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Semantic relations between the deriving and derived members of the conversion pair are varied. Here are some typical cases:

Verbs converted from nouns

a) Object → an action performed with the help of the object:

hammer → to hammer

b) Object (mostly a living being) → an action characteristic of the object:

witness → to witness

Nouns converted from verbs

a) Action → an instance of the action:

to step → a step

b) Action → an object or the result of the action:

to purchase → a purchase

It should be noted, however, that in some cases it's difficult to point out the initial form in the conversion pair, i. e. whether a verb is converted from a noun or vice versa.

STRUCTURAL PATTERNS

1. Sentences with /Is-clauses

Now just as Mr. Cowlishaw was personally conducting to the door the first visitor, there was another ring at the door.

In complex sentences with an adverbial clause of time introduced by the conjunction as there may be different combinations of tense forms.

as-clause principal clause
a) the Past Continuous the Past Indefinite
b) the Past Indefinite the Past Indefinite
c) the Past Indefinite the Past Continuous

These combinations show different time relations between the action of the adverbial clause and that of the principal clause.

As I was going inside he called Когда я входил в дом, он позвал те. (а) меня.

The Past Continuous shows that the action of the adverbial clause was in process when the action of the principal clause was accomplished. In Russian we find a verb of the imperfective aspect in the adverbial clause (входил) and a verb of the perfective aspect in the principal clause (позвал).

As she reached the highest step, she felt weak and faint, (b) Когда она дошла до верхней ступеньки, она почувствовала слабость и головокружение.

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This combination may express a succession of actions. In Russian we find verbs of the perfective aspect in both clauses (дошла, почувствовала).

It may also denote two fully simultaneous actions both in process.

As they drove home they talked about the football match, (b) Пока они ехали домой, они разговаривали о футбольном матче.

In Russian we find verbs of the imperfective aspect in both clauses (ехали, разговаривали).

As they waited for the telephone call, Hester was finishing her embroidery, (c) Пока они ждали телефонного звонка, Эстер заканчивала свою вышивку.

This combination also denotes two simultaneous actions in process. The Past Continuous is used in the principal clause when the action there is expressed by a terminative (предельный) verb as otherwise it would denote a completed action. In Russian both verbs are imperfective (ждали, заканчивала).

2. Had better, would rather

"If you're going to talk like that," she said suddenly..., "I'd better go."

The set phrase had better do smth denotes an action considered by the speaker necessary under the circumstances. Had is often contracted to 'd.

The rain has stopped. I had better go before it starts again. Дождь перестал. Пожалуй, я лучше пойду (мне лучше идти), пока он снова не начался.
You'd- better drive carefully, the road is bad here. Вы бы внимательнее вели машину, здесь плохая дорога.

The set phrase would rather (sooner) do smth expresses a person's preference, choice or desire. Would is often contracted to 'd.

She said she would rather go to a younger dentist. Она сказала, что предпочла бы обратиться к более молодому зубному врачу.
"I'd sooner die than retire," said the colonel. "Я скорее умру, чем уйду в отставку", - сказал полковник.

3. The Absense of Article with Nouns in Apposition

Mrs. Simeon Clowes, mayoress of Hanbridge

No article is used with nouns in apposition when they denote a position (rank, state, post or occupation) which is, as a rule, unique. The same is true when such nouns are used predicatively.

Mr. Hicks, President of the firm, accompanied the guests. Мистер Хикс, президент фирмы, сопровождал гостей.
Mr. Hicks is President of the firm. . Мистер Хикс - президент этой фирмы. .

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VOCABULARY

1. ... Mr. Cowlishaw found himself in the double difficulty of ...

difficulty n - трудность, затруднение

He did the work without (any, much) difficulty. Он выполнил работу без (всякого, особого) труда.
He did it, but with difficulty. Он сделал это, но с трудом.

to have difficulty in doing smth - с трудом делать что-л.

Do you have any difficulty in understanding spoken English? Вам трудно понимать английскую разговорную речь?
I had no difficulty in finding her house. Я без труда нашла ее дом.

2. ... and welcoming his second visitor ...

to welcome vt - greet or entertain with pleasure - приветствовать (гостя), радушно принимать

We looked forward to welcoming them at our home. Мы с нетерпением ждали того дня, когда будем принимать их у себя.

to welcome a suggestion (an idea, a plan, criticism) - receive of accept gladly - приветствовать, одобрять предложение (мысль, план, критику)

They welcomed our suggestion. Они одобрили наше предложение.

welcome n - прием (гостя)

to give smb (receive) a warm (cold, hearty, rousing) welcome - оказать теплый (холодный, сердечный, восторженный) прием

They gave us a warm welcome when we came back. По возвращении нам была устроена радушная встреча.
He received a cold welcome. Ему был оказан холодный прием.

welcome a - received with pleasure (often suggests prior need or an answer to one's wishes) - желанный, приятный, долгожданный

  • a welcome guest - желанный (дорогой) гость
  • a welcome rest - желанный отдых
  • a welcome letter - долгожданное письмо
  • welcome news - приятная новость
The news was most welcome. Это известие всех обрадовало.

to be welcome to smth; to be welcome to do smth - having full permission to use or take smth; to do smth, go somewhere, etc -

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имеющий право или разрешение распоряжаться, пользоваться чем-л.; делать что-л.

You are welcome to any book in my library. Можете взять любую книгу в моей библиотеке.
You are welcome to (use) my car today. Моя машина в вашем распоряжении сегодня.

3. The second was a visitor beyond Mr. Cowlishaw's hopes

to be beyond one's expectations (hopes) - to be more than one expected - быть сверх ожидания

Syn: to surpass one's expectations - to be better than one expected - превзойти чьи-л.. ожидания

His answer at the examination surpassed all my expectations (we expected a good answer, but what we had was even better). Его ответ на экзамене превзошел все мои ожидания.
His good answer at the examination was beyond our expectations (we didn't expect much). Сверх наших ожиданий он хорошо ответил на экзамене.

4. No other than Mrs. Simeon Clowes...

none other than (more common) - никто иной, как

The visitor was none other than the celebrated centre-forward of the Hanbridge football team. Посетитель был никто иной, как знаменитый нападающий футбольной команды Хэнбриджа.

5. Can i be of any service to you? (formal)

There are other ways of expressing the same idea which are frequently used in ordinary informal speech: Can I help you (in any way)? Can I be of any help to you? What can I do for you? Is there anything I can do for you?

6. "That depends," she said.

that depends, it all depends - как сказать, смотря как

7. "Have you had any experience in taking teeth out?"

experience n - knowledge or skill resulting from practise or from acquaintance with facts or events - опыт работы; стаж

to have experience in doing smth - иметь опыт чего-л.

Have you had much experience in teaching English? У вас большой опыт преподавания английского языка?

8. Не wondered what she was driving at.

to wonder vt & i - feel curiosity; be anxious to know - интересоваться; желать знать; задавать (себе) вопрос, спрашивать себя, недоумевать,

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I wonder who he is, what he wants, why he is here, whether he will come again:

The stranger's appearance and behaviour were so odd that everybody wondered where he had come from. Внешний вид и поведение незнакомца были такими странными, что всех интересовало, откуда он появился.
I found myself wondering whether I was still in love. И тут я стал задумываться, а влюблен ли я все еще.

to wonder at smb, smth; to wonder at smb's doing smth - feel surprised - удивляться; изумляться, поражаться

I can't help wondering at you. Я не могу не удивляться тебе.
I wonder at her saying that. Меня удивляет, что она так говорит.

I shouldn't wonder (if) (colloq) - He приходится удивляться, если...

I shouldn't wonder if he has a nervous breakdown. Я не удивлюсь, если у него сдадут нервы.

wonder n

no (little, small) wonder - it is not (hardly) surprising - неудивительно, не приходится удивляться, что...

No wonder she avoided his company: he was a great bore. Неудивительно, что она избегала его общества. Он был очень скучный человек.
He was taken ill, and no (little) wonder, considering he had been overworking for years. Он заболел, и неудивительно: все эти годы он слишком много работал.

9. ... what she was driving at

to drive at (colloq) - mean or intend - клонить к чему-л., намекать на что-л.

1 can't make out what he's driving at. Я не могу понять, к чему он клонит.

10. "How many teeth have you extracted?" she inquired.

to inquiret vt & i - ask to be told, try to get information by asking - спрашивать, осведомляться

To inquire generally implies a search for the fact or the truth, whereas to ask is the general or colourless term for putting a question. To inquire may introduce both direct and indirect speech.

She inquired if he liked the post. Она спросила, нравится ли ему его должность.
She inquired how to do it. Она спросила, как это делается.

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to make inquiries about smth, smb - наводить справки о чем-л., о ком-л.

I made inquiries about him at the hotel and learned that his name was Carton. Я навел справки о нем в гостинице и узнал, что его фамилия Картон.

11. ... merely wants stopping.

to stop a tooth = to fill a tooth (more common now) - запломбировать зуб

Manson went to the dentist to have his tooth filled. Мэнсон пошел к зубному врачу запломбировать зуб.

filling n - пломба

12. I didn't have a wink of sleep last night

not to have (get) a wink of sleep, not to sleep a wink - и глаз не сомкнуть

The sea raged throughout the night, and we did not sleep a wink. Море бушевало всю ночь, и мы не сомкнули глаз.

13. The mayoress resumed her seat.

to resume one's seat - occupy again -снова занять свое место

to resume one's work, one's speech, meal, story, etc - go on with after leaving off - возобновить, продолжать работу и т. п.

14. It's my tooth I want you to deal with.

to deal vi (with smth, smb) - иметь дело с чем-л., с кем-л.

The article deals with English dialects. Эта статья об английских диалектах.

The Russian phrase - легко (трудно) иметь дело с кем-л. has two English equivalents:

to be easy (hard, difficult) to deal with - easy (hard, difficult) to persuade or convince

to be easy (hard, difficult) to get on (along) with - easy (hard, difficult) to talk to, to be friends with, to work with

I've failed to persuade the man. He is hard to deal with. Я не смогла уговорить его. С ним трудно иметь дело.
The man was easy to get on with. С этим человеком было легко иметь дело.
We very soon made friends with him. Мы скоро подружились.

15. However, having consented, he was obliged to go through with the affair.

// to consent - express willingness, be willing to allow or do - соглашаться, давать согласие

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It is used in reference to important matters and implies making a definite decision.

It is not likely that there has ever been a civilized person of 65 years old who would consent to live his life over again (M. Twain). She ... consented to his demand that the correspondence ... should be carried on by lawyers only (Thackeray).//

The more common verb rendering this meaning is to agree.

Mrs. Clowes wondered why Mr. Cowlishaw wouldn't agree to take out her tooth. Миссис Клауз удивлялась, почему мистер Каулишо не соглашается выдернуть ей зуб.
I told him about his plan and he at once agreed to it. Я рассказал ему о своем плане" и он сразу согласился с ним

Other meanings of the verb to agree are:

a) share somebody's opinion, be in harmony with somebody - соглашаться с кем-л., быть единого мнения

I hope you will agree with me that our teacher's advice is excellent. Полагаю, вы согласитесь со мной, что советы учителя отличные.

b) arrange, come to terms - уславливаться, договариваться

They agreed to start early. Они условились выйти рано.
We all agreed on the terms. Мы договорились об условиях.
Have you agreed about the price yet? Вы уже договорились о цене?

16. ... he was obliged to go through with the affair.

to go through with smth - complete; not leave unfinished -довести что-л. до конца, завершить

Не was determined to go through with his work whatever happened. Он твердо решил довести дело до конца, что бы ни случилось.

Syn: to be through with smth (chiefly AE) - reach the end - окончить что-л.

When will you be through with your work? Когда ты окончишь работу?

17. Mr. Cowlishaw had fainted from nervous excitement.

"He's gone off; he'll come to in a minute."

to faint vi (from) - падать в обморок, терять сознание.

The shock was so great that I nearly fainted. Потрясение было настолько сильным, что я чуть не потерял сознание.

Syn: to go off (colloq); .// to lose consciousness (lit)//

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Ant: to come to (round) - приходить, прийти в себя; // to regain consciousness (lit)//

We splashed water on her face and she soon came to. Мы побрызгали ей лицо водой, и она скоро пришла в себя.
He took a long time to come to (round). Он долго не приходил в себя.

faint adj - weak; exhausted, failing - слабый, ослабевший, испытывающий головокружение

to be (feel) faint (with) - чувствовать слабость, дурноту

She felt faint with fatigue. Она едва держалась на ногах от усталости.
She felt faint in the stuffy room. "Water! Quick! I feel faint!" (I'm going to faint.) Она почувствовала себя дурно в душной комнате. "Воды! Скорее! Мне дурно!"

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